Chapters 13-16 - 1 Psychological Disorders o o o o...

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Psychological Disorders 11/16/2010 How do we draw the line between normal and disordered? o Deviant behavior: can vary based on culture and context o Disturbances: in behavior, thoughts, or emotions o Distress: the behavior usually causes the person distress o Dysfunctional: the behavior interferes with daily life Mental Health o Until 18 th century, those with mental illness were treated very poorly Poor living conditions (no care or food) Trephining (drilling holes in the skull) as a cure Reformed in France during French Revolution when the head of Paris’s hospitals unchained the patients o Medical Model Medical illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and cured through therapy and treatment Identifying and Classifying Mental Disorders o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems o Co-morbidity: co-occurrence of two or more disorders o Diathesis-stress model: people are predisposed to mental disorders but stress triggers it Axis 1: Clinical Syndrome o Mood Disorders Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature o Major Depressive Disorder Profound sadness, low self-esteem, feeling of worthlessness, slowed/unmotivated thought, loss of interest Dysthemic disorder: mild but chronic form 3 or more symptoms, lasting at least 2 years Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Winter related pattern of depression How common is depression? o 13% of Americans experience depressive disorders at some point in their life o Women are about twice as likely as men to experience depressive symptoms o Older adults experience less depression than younger adults 1
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Biological Reasons for Mood Disorders o Depression tied to genes o Depression can be caused by chemical imbalance Norepinephrine Serotonin Acts to reduce the chemical breakdown of the neurotransmitter Acts to prevent reuptake Depression – Psychological Factors o Helplessness Theory People who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are Internal Stable Global “I will always be a failure in everything” Bipolar Disorder (a.k.a. manic-depressive disorder) o Cycle of manic episode followed by depressed episode Mania: patient is extremely active, impulsive, distractible and feels like he/she is on top of the world During the depressed episode, the patient is sometimes inactive, tired, irritable, and feeling worthless o Much less common than depressive disorder 2% o Men and women equally likely to develop the disorder o Heritability is high – 80% for identical twins o PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with manic and depressive episodes Anxiety Disorders o Disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Duffie during the Fall '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapters 13-16 - 1 Psychological Disorders o o o o...

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