Chapter 3 Notes - Chapter 3 Notes An Introduction to...

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Chapter 3 Notes – An Introduction to Organic Compounds Alkanes - Composed of only carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms and contain only single bonds - General formula: C n H 2n+2 - Straight-chain alkanes: alkanes in which the carbons form a continuous chain with no branches - Branched-chain alkane: alkanes in which carbons may branch off the straight chain - Hydrocarbons: compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen - Constitutional isomers: compounds which have the same molecular formula but differ in the order in which the atoms are connected o The number of constitutional isomers increases rapidly as the number of carbons in an alkane increases 3.1 – Nomenclature of Alkyl Substituents - Alcohol: compound with a hydrogen replaced by an OH - Amine: compound with a hydrogen replaced by an NH 2 - Alkyl halide: compound with a hydrogen replaced by a halogen - Ether: compound with a hydrogen replaced by an OR - Primary carbon: a carbon that is bonded to only one other carbon - Secondary carbon: a carbon that is bonded to two other carbons - Tertiary carbon: a carbon that is bonded to three other carbons 3.2 – Nomenclature of Alkanes
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