Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Notes Reactions of Alkenes and...

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Chapter 5 Notes – Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes Feature of all alkene reactions: The relatively loosely held π electrons of the carbon—carbon double bond are attracted to an electrophile. Thus, each reaction starts with the addition of an electrophile to one of the sp 2 carbons of the alkene and concludes with the addition of a nucleophile to the other sp 2 carbon. 5.1 – Addition of a Hydrogen Halide to an Alkene - If the electrophilic reagent that adds to an alkene is a hydrogen halide, the product of the reaction will be an alkyl halide - The sp 2 carbon that does not become attached to the proton is the carbon that is positively charged in the carbocation 5.2 – Carbocation Stability - The stability of a carbocation increases as the number of alkyl substituents bonded to the positively charged carbon increases (3° > 2° > 1°) - The same factors that stabilize the positively charged carbocation stabilize the transition state for its formation - The more stable the transition state (i.e. lower in energy), the smaller is the free energy of activation, and therefore, the faster the reaction 5.3 – Regioselectivity of Electrophilic Addition Reactions - Regioselective reaction: a reaction in which two or more constitutional isomers could be obtained as products, but one of them predominates
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2011 for the course CHEM 1315 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Notes Reactions of Alkenes and...

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