Chapter 9 Notes

Chapter 9 Notes - The radical created in the second...

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Chapter 9 Notes – Reactions of Alkanes Radicals 9.1 – The Low Reactivity of Alkanes - Strong C—H sigma bonds - Unpolarized bonds due to roughly equal electronegativity of H and C - Almost no charge - Very stable, unreactive - Neither nucleophiles nor electrophiles have a good point to attack - Also called “paraffins” ( Latin –“parum affinis” = little affinity) 9.2 – Chlorination and Bromination of Alkanes - Alkanes only undergo halogenation reactions which take place only at high temperatures - Bromination is more selective than chlorination (favors tertiary) - Chlorine atoms are more reactive than bromine atoms - The initiation step forms the chlorine or bromine radicals -
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Unformatted text preview: The radical created in the second propagation step can repeat the first propagation step -The combination of two radicals is called a termination step -Radical substitution reaction in which radicals are involved as intermediates and the end result is the substitution of the halogen for a hydrogen 9.3 Factors that Determine Product Distribution -The more stable the radical, the more easily it is formed -Tertiary radicals are more stable than secondary and primary 9.5 Stereochemistry of Radical Substitution Reactions -If a radical substitution reaction forms a product with an asymmetric center, a racemic mixture will be obtained Summary of Reactions...
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