Chapter 4 Notes

# Chapter 4 Notes - 4 The diameter is the length of the side...

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Chapter 4 – Contact Interactions A Model of a Solid - Two atoms linked by a chemical bond behave in a manner very similar to two macroscopic balls attached to the ends of a very low mass spring - Each bass represents a massive atomic nucleus surrounded by the inner electrons of the atom. Almost all the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. - The spring in the model represents the chemical bond, which is due to the shared outer electrons of both atoms. Tension Forces - Tension is the force exerted by an object like a wire or a string - The magnitude of the tension force is dependent upon the mass Length of an Interatomic Bond - The center-to-center distance between two adjacent atoms - Steps to finding the interatomic bond length: 1. Convert the density into SI units 2. Multiply the density by the number of atoms (Avogadro’s number) and divide by the mass 3. Take the cube root to find how many atoms are along one edge

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Unformatted text preview: 4. The diameter is the length of the side divided by the number of atoms along one edge of the cube The Stiffness of an Interatomic Bond -Springs linked in series o Two springs linked end to end (in a series) stretch twice as much as one spring when the same force is combined o The combined spring is only half as stiff as the individual spring-Springs linked in parallel o Two springs side by side (parallel) stretch half as much as one spring when the same force is combined o The combined spring is twice as stiff as the individual spring-Interatomic bond stiffness is a property of the material and therefore does not change due to macroscopic dimensions. Stress, Strain, and Young’s Modulus -Young’s modulus is a property of a particular material independent of the shape or size of the object -It measures the “stretchability” of a solid material --In terms of atomic quantities,...
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