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lecture 12 - GEOS 1004 SPOTILA/13/09 INTERNAL EARTH...

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GEOS 1004, SPOTILA Lecture 12, 10/13/09 INTERNAL EARTH STRUCTURE *Earth’s internal structure was established in the first few hundred million years during the “1 st differentiation.” Basic structure: Inner Core: from center of Earth to 1170 km radius; solid , iron+nickel; 7000 C, makes up 0.6% volume of ˚ the Earth Outer Core: from 1170 to 3470 km radius; liquid , iron+nickel, 6000 C, makes up 16.6% volume of the ˚ Earth Why is the outer core liquid if the inner core is solid? -melting point of iron alloy increases with pressure and pressure increases with depth -pressure, temperature, state of phase Mantle: from 3470 to 6360 km radius; solid (but ductile) , silicate minerals (Si, O, Fe, Mg) olivine, peridotite (ultramafic), 3000 C; makes up 83.4% of the volume of Earth. ˚ Crust: oceanic (mafic), continental (felsic/intermediate); enriched in lighter elements What is analogous to the mantle’s viscosity? -cold glass How do we know the mantle’s viscosity? -post glacial rebound Mantle convection is important for: 1) cooling the earth 2) plate tectonics Evidence; how do we know?
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