Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review - Study guide: This is a list of...

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Unformatted text preview: Study guide: This is a list of terminology and central issues that may appear on the final. Euthyphro and Divine Command Theory: Terminology: Divine command theory An act is morally right if and only if it is required by God An act is morally wrong if and only if it is forbidden by God Gods commandments are what makes these acts morally right or wrong Divine insight theory Agrees with the first two parts of Divine Command Theory Says that Gods commandments are a perfect guide to moral truths because God perfectly perceives the Demands of morality Be familiar with: Socrates argument that holy stuff cannot be holy because the Gods love it If this is true then all holy things must have some sort of common holy making feature He uses the analogy of the shirt. o Why is this shirt in the state of being worn by me? Because I am wearing it. But why am I wearing it? Why are holy things in the state of being loved by the gods? o The answer cannot be because they are loved o So there must be another reason Relative advantages and disadvantages of divine command theory and divine insight theory Divine Command Theory o Undermines Gods Goodness and a Stable base for morality Gods commands are arbitrary so he could change his mind at any time. A stable basis for morality requires reason Determination between right and wrong is an arbitrary matter of Gods whim Divine Insight Theory o Gods commands distinguish right from wrong But they dont tell us why things are right or wrong Why is murder wrong? o Murder is wrong because God forbids it (DCT) o God forbids murder because it is wrong (DIT) Moral Relativism: Terminology: Moral relativism There are no universal moral truths 1 What is right or wrong for a person depends entirely on that persons society Be familiar with: Argument for moral relativism discussed in class Different cultures have different moral codes We have no unbiased basis for preferring our societies moral code Therefore there is no universal code Concerns about moral relativism (criticism, progress, etc.) No room for moral progress o All progress is merely change You cant criticize other societies morals Problems with the argument for moral relativism Moral disagreement between societies is exaggerated o Most differences stem from different beliefs or different circumstances Even if there is disagreement that doesnt mean there is no objective truth Aristotle: Terminology: Perfectionism Focus on flourishing o The right action is whatever manifests virtue Be the best person you can be o Everything else will fall into place Instrumental v. intrinsic goods Instrumental goods- tools that allow you to achieve something else o Beneficial because they help you achieve something else The final outcome is an intrinsic good o You desire intrinsic goods for no reason other than to have them Doctrine of the mean...
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Final Exam Review - Study guide: This is a list of...

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