Class 3 Notes - Earthquake Properties

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

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WHO 135mm. \ [El MOHQ bigwm-mawawg {USCDVEKEt’ £9106 19/ Heix4ongfiaé EM \gijégmggvvgfiq} ‘ 600M Eng? ”fiéfiw am C $3051“ 5% M$Mma El 6 uwifiagag is % éfi-flmflwww C 613340 a {gram :2: am: I - $3 : \1 3,333?” 2: 2 ” j » m .L 3x f“. men. s: ff . m ‘. 01.5%}??? f 2.2% E iéw§a§j~a3 515%?“ 5 L32; was) Viirw %:.,-v‘§’?aa,§; \ —— Ouma Coma Ea; {Atrium so ng me Qfififisfii, {‘31:}?qu — b11109 fM Kama/Km; flax/“av“; firm/5m: SEISMIC»- U’Dkva‘fl Ufigb 73:) fifimmam fiM-iiwg g3?5fi§;?w%¥ f? flxfigfig (SE6. KfiWaa Flauzg 1,5) fiwgwség; Simafifis Lam.) { Kaflmmm n (.9! > leflrl‘iw; Ea-hl'lh‘ “37>! I N: K Wfifimm \ 3 {maggmngfi 91 4 ammmm) n! Ema: : I); g??? 192. x} 2, Ni? 937?. 4% nggfichffi‘s F wave 1-— Compressions—j Undisturbed medium (b) Love wave VIIIJJIIJIJIIHJHJIII i ~€gIfl...g...-.-..... I Figure 1.9 Diagram illustrating the forms of ground motion near the ground surface in four types of earthquake waves. [From Bruce A. Bolt. Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Ported Veil, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. 1976.} Down Time —— L . , . 17:00 . 7 10 _ l l _ c If M ' - ‘ flanMMM-WWWWWMW Jmit'iutefl 1-.- éKS ‘58 LR Figure 6.2 Three components of ground motion recorded by a seismograph in Berkeley at a distance of 88° from a South Pacific earthquake on May 7, 1972. The symbols LR and LO denote Rayleigh and Love waves, respectively. Impacts of the World Trade Center Collapse. September ll, 2001 The airplane impacts that led to the tragic collapse of the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001, did not escape seismo~ logical notice. At the Lamont-Dougherty Observatory of Columbia University in Palisades, New York, seismic recordings 34 kilometers away clearly show the first and second impact as well as the first and second tower collapse. The seismogram from the Palisades Observatory shows the waves from the collapse of the north tower (see figure). The time of the event and its magnitude computed from the records are also shown in the figure. The seismic wave from a local earthquake is used for com- parison. From these records, it was calculated that less than a millionth of the fuel energy in the planes was converted to seismic waves. l C) l P—wave = EARTHQUAKEINMANHATFAN ' ‘ MAGNITUDE, ML=2.4 o 10 SECONDS 20 30 5 SECOND WTC COLLAPSE NORTH TOWER, ML=2.3 E 11 SEP 2001 I O 1 14h 28m 313 I l a 0 V _ 7 ‘_ ”WV .‘ 1 ,m IL ll'l lrJ'l'ur A. te l l l l ’ I ll l O? m E LL} E g _5 station: PAL 5 5 component: E-W >~ 17 SEP 2001 E: 12h 34m 22s 0 O E 2 0 ad O —5 l_-|—Lo—|—|—J——|—L..JJ_I_|_L_L_£_[_|‘L_L_LJJ Try it Yourself: Check the magnitude of the equivalent earthquake using the Richter scale given in Box 8.1. For more information, visit wwwldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN. l a l l . l i l l 4‘7 5- \‘3 Wad-:5 cm L‘;' Inner Outer core core Figure 2.6 Seismic wave paths illustrating reflection and refraction of seismic waves from the source (focus) of the earthquake by the different layers of the earth. Note that p- and s-waves can reach the earth‘s surface between 0 and 103°. but the liquid nature of the outer core allows onlyr p-waves to reach the surface between 143 and 180°. In the shadow zone between angles of 103 and 143°, only paths reflected from the inner core can reach the earth’s surface, (From Sumner, I969.) @ Laquzmé fiflwmmg Wm w.» WW _ (w m.(m......u....w MWWMN WWW Camazngg 31990:, w; ob €91 5? i- Wewag gm fagkgazm‘3 Qfisfifl“ 9 waWE’ Z g~$m/‘S a Smwmg 1 2‘5 ““55 firamgg éfifiwrfy $$”=’;§::fif2m w $73" g» éww’fiww“; m 1! 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