BIO 26 FInals review

BIO 26 FInals review - Endocrine system 1 Hormones a Lipids...

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Endocrine system. 1. Hormones a. Lipids soluble i. Cross the cell membrane by diffusion. ii. Receptors for these hormones are located inside the cells iii. Usually travel by binding to proteins iv. Steroids, made from cholestrols. v. Thyroid hormones – iodine, essential to their production. b. Hydrophobic 2. Hypothalamus releases hormones through the interior pituitary, or the posterior pituitary. a. anterior pituitary, portal system (blood supply system) i. Hypothalamus releases CRH >anterior pituitary > ACTH > adrenal cortex> cortisal> breakdown of proteins, lipids, glycogen> energy. 1. Decrease inflammation. 2. Excessive cortisol: moon face.(swelling face) ii. Hypothalamus releases TRH > anterior pituitary > TSH > thyroid > thyroid hormones. 1. Heat generation 2. Metabolism 3. Low level= lethargic and intolerance 4. Iodine essential. a. Deficiency: increase TRH and TSH. 5. Excessive TSH, stimulates growth of your thyroid. a. Goiter. iii. Hypothalamus > GNRH >anterior > LH and FSH > 1. Ovaries, ovulation 2. Tests, increase production, and also testarones.
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iv. Hypothalamus > growth hormones > anterior pituitary > releases growth hormones > 1. Stimulates growth. 2. Gigantism. 3. Dwarfism v. Hypothalamus> Prolactin inhibiting hormone , Dopamine > an inhitbing, decreases prolactin, 1. Decrease in milk production b. Posteriors i. Oxytoxin ii. ADh 3. Parathyroid glands secrets a hormone that is regulating the cells calcium concentration. Regulate parathyroid gland > parathyroid hormone, bones- dissolves bone> Calcium released into the blood stream 4. Pancreas: a. Beta Cells i. Fed state- High blood glucose concentration, pancreas releases insulins from the beta cells 1. Protein synthesis. 2. Fat synthesis 3. Glucose ii. b. Alpha Cells i. Breakdous 1. break up protein, fat, glycogen etc for energy. Glycogen deforms into glucose which can go into the blood stream 5. Muscle. Contraction machines. a. Specialized proteins, myosin + actin b. Striated muscles > patterned, parallel fibers.
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i. Skeletal ++ cardiac ii. Action potentials, Tetonous. (maximum contraction) c. Smooth muscles > not pattered. i. Lines the hollow organs 1. Blood vessels, arteries, capillaries, and veins, iris of the eyes, GI Tract, aka digestive system. 2. 100% involuntary. 3. Regulated by the autonomic nervous sytem a. Sympathetic and parasympathetic. d. Skeletal muscles i. Made up of muscle fibers, 1. Within the muscle fibers there are fibirils.> filaments> (main stuff that result in contraction) > sarcomere 2. Sacromere a. Actin (thin filaments) *** inside actin are myosin. e. Functions of the muscle are the contractions i. Shortening of sarcomere length. ii. Filaments length does not change. iii. Myosin and actin work as ice pick axes.
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course BIO 26 taught by Professor Fortes during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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BIO 26 FInals review - Endocrine system 1 Hormones a Lipids...

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