phi_lec_2

phi_lec_2 - -The conclusion follows from the premises i.e.:...

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Lecture 2 – April 1, 2010 Evidence/ justification Necessarily, if person s knows proposition p, then: - S believes p - P is true - S has justification or evidence for believing p Skepticism To be a skeptic about some domain of D is to believe that no one can know any propositions about D THE ARGUMENT FOR SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE FUTURE 1. I don’t know whether a meteorite will hit the Davis water tower tonight. 2. If I don’t know whether a meteorite will hit the Davis water tower tonight, then I don’t know whether the Davis water tower will be standing tomorrow. 3. If I don’t know whether the Davis water tower will be standing tomorrow, then no one knows any contingent truth about the future 4. Therefore, no one knows any contingent truth about the future. Arguments An argument is a series of sentences, one of which – the conclusion – is supposed to be supported by the other(s) – the premise or premises Soundness and Validity An argument is valid if and only if:
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Unformatted text preview: -The conclusion follows from the premises i.e.: if the premises were all true, then the conclusion would have to be true as well i.e.: there is no possible situation in which all the premises are true and the conclusion is false An argument can have false premises and still be valid. An argument can have a false conclusion and still be valid. An argument is sound if and only if:-It is both (i) valid and (ii) all of its premises are in fact true A sound argument cannot have false premises or a false conclusion. The Causal-Representative Theory of Perception. .. Lockes Hypothesis: Typically, our sensations are caused by objects that resemble them However It is not a necessary truth that our sensations/sensory images resemble the things that cause them Even if this is how things are, it could have been different. How? A question How do we know that our sensory images do typically resemble the objects that caused them?...
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