soc final study guide

soc final study guide - Definitional Questions A1 -...

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Definitional Questions A1 - Ethnicity equated with shared culture - Ethnic group: a group of person distinguished largely by common culture, typically including language, religion or other patterns of behavior and belief - A race is a human group defined by itself or others as distinct by virtue of perceived common physical characteristics that are held to be inherent - A race is a group of human beings socially defined on the basis of physical characteristics - Differences: ethnicity is based on heritage and race is based on biology - Similarities: both are products of interaction between diverse populations; both commonly held to be “natural” categories, based on common descent or origin, on one hand, and on systematic physical differences, on the other; both organize society into distinctive kinds of groups - Ethnicity refers to perceived common ancestry, the perception of a shared history of some sort, and shared symbols of peoplehood - Race refers to a group of human beings socially defined on the basis of physical characteristics - The identification of common physical characteristics often also involves a claim to some form of shared ancestry; groups making such claim typically claim a distinctive history as well and may signify their peoplehood in culturally distinctive ways A2 - Nationalism: desire for people to establish a self-governing political entity; sovereignty and self-determination; centered on autonomy (self-governing of people) - Ethnicity: blood related; shared culture; common descent - Distinctions: political agenda; nationalism is a movement for rights within a group - Relation: relation in America because US in trying to construct a common sense of peoplehood within a cultural and racially diverse population A3 - Statistical: the normal is whatever trait most people in a group display; normality is not a characteristic of individuals; it is a quality of the distribution of a trait within a particular group; it differs from group to group - Normative: treats what is normal entirely as conformity to a standard or ideal, regardless of how many people actually display the relevant trait; assumes normality stems from conforming to some ideal or standard; normative conceptions imply that everyone or no one in any particular group can be normal; another view of normality as conformity to an ideal standard sees these standards as relative to particular groups rather than as universal - Evolutionary: normality is defined by whatever characteristics humans were designed by natural selection to have; universal standards of natural functioning is used to judge the normality of any behavior A4 - Culture of poverty: Based on the concept that the poor have a unique value system , the culture of poverty theory suggests the poor remain in poverty because of their adaptations to the burdens of poverty
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soc final study guide - Definitional Questions A1 -...

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