Class 4 Notes - Earthquake Intensity Measures

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

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Samara .Wwfia .Domhmaa . 2,9 M "$32455 E 1 1 1 ..E 95% Table 2-1 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 l Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances Felt by only a few persons at rest, especial] y on upper floors of buildings; delicately H suspended objects may swing I“ Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings; but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake; standing motor cars may rock slightly; vibration like passing of track: duration estimated W During the clay felt indoors by many. outdoors by few; at night some awakened; dishes, Windows, doors disturbed: walls make cracking sound: sensation like heavy truck striking building: standing motor cars rocked noticeably V Felt by nearly everyone, many awakened; some dishes, windows, etc., broken; a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects Overturned; disturbances of trees, piles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed; pendulum clocks may stop Felt by all. many frightened and run outdoors: some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys; damage slight Everybody V V“ runs outdoors; damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction, slight to moderate in well-built ordinary structures, considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures; some chimneys broken; noticed by persons driving motor cars 'v'Ill Damage slight in specially designed structures, considerable in ordinary substantial buildings. with partial collapse, great in poorly built structures; panel walls thrown out of frame structures: fall of chimneys. factory stacks, columns, monuments, turned: Sand and mud ejected in small amounts: changes in well w cars disturbed walls; heavy furniture over- ater; persons driving motor IX Damage considerable in specially designed structures: Well—designed frame structures thrown out of plumb; great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse: buildings shifted off founda- X tions: ground cracked conspicuously; underground pipes broken Some well-built wooden structures destro yed; lTlDSl masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations: ground badly cracked; rails bent; landslides considerable from river banks x1 and steep slopes; shifted sand and mud; water splashed over banks Few, if any (masonry) structures remain standin underground pipelines complete] XII rails bent greatly g; bridges destroyed; broad fissures in ground; y out of service; earth slumps and land slips in soft ground; Damage totai: practically all works of contraction are damaged greatly or destroyed; waves seen on ground surface: lines of sight and level are distorted; objects thrown into the air MSK Figure 2.27 Comparison of intensity values from modified Mercalli (MMl). Rossi— Forel (RF). Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), and Medvedev—Spoonheuer— Karnik (MSK) Scales. (After Richter ( l958) and Murphy and O’Brien (1977).) 8—«9' New Madriab gfl . 1 __ = 3 New Orleans Kilometers Figure 8.1 lsoseismal lines of intensity [Modified Mercalli scale] in the New Madrid. Missouri, earthquake on December 16, 1811. The feit radius of the earthquake extended to the east and Gulf coasts. intensity in the then sparsely popuiated area west of the epicenter is unknown. Intensity vaiues at specified points are given in Arabic numerals, and the isoseismals are iabeied in Roman numerals. [Courtesy of O. Nuttli and Bu”. Seism. Soc. Am] 5am WMQ Néémpwwa 7 (fidmflafifi 9&5) “ Comsmt’rzz, m% 17» mku% kgawaa e26 spvamrwsgg A: p—waue (imam A: 6?:cfim bzs‘mwcfi CW “Damagng T: éfiawoos Mkemtms, c3452. {gag}; a.” $76M. gar? Wgagg Mfiguzag mwm KEQPomfi’a DURAFFIbr») gimp) OTHER. 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