History1001Exam1Notes

History1001Exam1Notes - History 1001 Exam #1 I. II. III....

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History 1001 – Exam #1 I. What is history? a. History is a documentation of past events. b. Herodotus – father of history i. Ca. 484 – 420 BC ii. Greek iii. Historion – investigation, questioning, inquiry c. Primary and secondary sources i. Primary source – some evidence coming from a period in question ii. Secondary source – someone who came along after and interpreted primary sources d. Types of evidence i. History tends to favor written evidence ii. Physical evidence tends to be used more by anthropologists, but it is also important e. Types of history i. Political ii. Social iii. Intellectual iv. Cultural v. Institutional vi. Women/gender vii. Religious viii. Economic ix. History of science x. Legal xi. Military xii. And more II. How to read a source a. Level One i. Who wrote it? ii. When was it written? iii. What type of document is it? iv. Main storyline b. Level Two i. Intended audience ii. Why was it written? iii. What are the assumptions made in the source? c. Level Three i. Can I believe this document? ii. What can I learn about the society/person who created this document? iii. How does it relate to its context? III. Understanding Dating Systems a. Year of king’s rule b. Olympic years c. Significant events i. Jewish calendar: Anno Mundi, AM 5771 ii. Islamic calendar: Anno Hegirae, AH 1432 iii. Christian calendar: Anno Domini, AD 2011 (also called CE or “Common Era”) 1. AD = CE; BC = BCE; fifth century = 400s, either AD or BC
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IV. Birth of Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia a. When/where to begin? i. C. 8500 BC – domestication of animals ii. C. 8000 BC – Jericho – small city near Jerusalem in modern-day Turkey iii. C. 6500 BC – Catal Huyuk – complex city, population 6-8000 iv. 3200 – Mesopotamia – first writing b. Mesopotamia i. Between Tigris and Euphrates rivers ii. No rain iii. Had to form military/government in order to get people to work together to dig canals for water (irrigation) iv. Religion – polytheistic, blamed changes and problems on anger and displeasure of gods c. Mesopotamian Civilizations i. Success of Mesopotamia attracted invaders 1. Lack of natural protection in area made invasion easily attainable ii. Used mud bricks for building due to lack of resources 1. Major structures – temples, palaces, walls iii. Two main Western language groups 1. Semitic – Mesopotamian languages
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History1001Exam1Notes - History 1001 Exam #1 I. II. III....

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