Families - Families are relationships in which people live...

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are relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit, care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group. The family is a basic social institution and performs many important functions. These functions include: regulating adult sexual activity, socializing children, providing affection and companionship for family members, and operating as an economic unit of production and consumption. During our lifetime many of us will be members of two types of families. One type is called the family of orientation, which refers to the family into which we are born or adopted and in which early socialization usually takes place. The second type is called the family of procreation, which is the family we form by having or adopting children. In preindustrial societies, the primary social organization of families is through kinship , a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption. The major family type in preindustrial societies is the extended family. An extended family is a family unit composed of relatives (such as grandparents, uncles, and aunts) in addition to parents and children who live in the same household. In industrialized societies, other social institutions fulfill some of the functions previously taken care of by kinship ties, and the major family type is transformed into the nuclear family. A nuclear family is a family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, who live apart from other relatives. Residential patterns refer to physical location of new families. Preindustrial societies often have normative expectations concerning where new families will locate. Patrilocal residence is the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) with the husband's family, and matrilocal residence occurs when a married couple lives in the same household (or community) as the wife's parents. In industrialized nations, nuclear families typically are expected to establish a new domicile. The custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband's and the wife's parents is called neolocal residence . Patterns of family descent are important because they often determine norms of inheritance among family members. In preindustrial societies, the most common pattern of descent is patrilineal descent. Patrilineal descent traces family descent through the father's side of the family. Typically, patrilineal descent would allow a legitimate son to inherit his father's property and sometimes his position upon the father's death. Another form of unilineal descent is matrilineal descent. Matrilineal descent traces family descent through the mother's side of the family; however, inheritance of property and position usually is traced from the maternal uncle (mother's brother) to his nephew (mother's son). In industrial societies such as the United States, kinship usually is traced through both
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Families - Families are relationships in which people live...

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