Race & Ethnicity

Race & Ethnicity - Race refers to a category of...

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Race refers to a category of people who have been socially defined on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape. An ethnic group is a collection of people who have been socially defined by others or by themselves on the basis of cultural characteristics. Race and ethnicity are often used as bases of hierarchical ranking in society. A majority group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society. A minority group is one whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the majority group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. Minority group members are singled out for unequal treatment due to some physical or cultural characteristic. Minority group members are conscious of being subjected to discrimination. Regardless of its size, the minority group is dominated by the majority group. Membership in the minority group is ascribed. Prejudice is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups. Prejudice is often based on stereotypes. Stereotypes are over-generalizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics that are applied to all members of a category. Discrimination is defined as actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group. Discriminatory actions vary in severity from the use of derogatory labels to violence against individuals and groups. Genocide is the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation. More recently, the term "ethnic cleansing" has been used to define policies of "cleansing" geographic areas (such as in Bosnia-Herzegovina) by forcing persons of other races or religions to flee-- or die. Individual discrimination consists of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property. Hate crimes may be defined as extreme examples of individual discrimination. Institutional discrimination is the day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups. For example, banks and insurance companies may incorporate policies whereby they "red- line" selected areas of a city as "high risk" investments. As a result, companies may be more likely to deny loans and insurance policies (or charge higher rates) to applicants
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Race & Ethnicity - Race refers to a category of...

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