CN 2-1-11

CN 2-1-11 - 2/1/11 World History: Empires and Frontiers The...

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2/1/11 World History: Empires and Frontiers The Advance of Agrarian Civilization Agricultural civilization o Urban civilization o Marked by existence of a state 17 th and 18 th centuries o We see advance of this kind of civilization and the forms of which they take at the expense of other societies (HG, Nomadic) or those that are not marked by state institution but are agricultural o A lot of this has to do with guns Takes a certain degree of civilization to manufacture effective guns If you rely on a supply of guns from a people you are at a severe disadvantage Economic superiority which tips power in favor of organized technological states Frontier Zones o Areas on the border between an expanding (usually) Agrarian- urbanized civilization and a people at a different stage of development o Can last for centuries but usually don’t o Produce cultural intermediaries Sometimes people of mixed descent EX. Métiers—Mix of French and Native American Situation where native American people can leverage difference between two competing empires EX: Iroquois who survived as independent power for over a century because they were in between French and British American empires o Could rely on fact that neither side wanted to take over Iroquois territory
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EX: Cassacks- herders sometimes agriculture lived between territories of Russia, Poland and Sweden efentually losing to the Russians o Associated with a degree of personal freedom o And Technology transfers Transfers from more economically developed (more populous society) to the less populous society EX: Native Americans using guns, copper kettles, etc o How do empires progress Violently They expand at the expesnse of HG, nomads and early agriculturalists Can do this because they have higher level of technology Have a larger population (often) They don’t always win but in the long run they do o You can point to this battle or that battle where the empire was defeated by the Barbarians but in the long run empires win o What makes this period of history different is that Barbarians are playing defense Goths, Monguls on offense Now they are on the defense from civilized powers o Cultural Transfer Ruling the “Barbarians” Conquest o Normally Barbarians are the ones who are playing offense The Goths, the Monguls o Now they are on the Defense from Civilized power o Genocide Not the most used one
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Forcible Acculturation o Most used method of conquering barbarians o Conquering power tries to change culture of conquered people to change them into loyal subjects of the empire. o Often takes form of religious conversion Europeans in Americas are very big on this form of forcible acculturation They do this partly because as people become Catholics they will become subjects to the King of Spain o Alternative is cooptation of barbarian religious leaders Another common tactic of Empires Instituting Property
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course PSC 1001 taught by Professor Dickson during the Spring '11 term at GWU.

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CN 2-1-11 - 2/1/11 World History: Empires and Frontiers The...

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