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CN 3-22-11 - World History The Second Industrial Revolution...

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3/22/11 World History: The Second Industrial Revolution Characteristics Applied Science o A lot more direct application of scientific theory to technological issues than in the 1 st IR o EX: Creation of Chemical Industries 2 most prominent are Artificial dyes and Pharmaceuticals Until mid 19 th century dyes used to be naturally occurring substances This period is the birth of the Pharmaceutical industry o You want someone with genuine expertise working on your medicine o For this reason the leading country in the 2 nd IR was Germany Germany had what was by all accounts the finest higher education system and finest technical education system of any country at the time Germany university system lead world academia in many ways German higher education was model to which higher education reformers looked o Growing emphasis on importance of managers and experts 1 st IR the workers and factory owners were the prominent ones Managers did not play culturally prominent role in the 1 st IR Americans tend to underrate the importance of the engineer in modern history Because we never developed a history of engineer politicians Managerialism o Managers become more and more important in the operation of industrial business o To the point where may industrial businesses are run by managers not by owners What business historians call separation of ownership from control New Sources of Power
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o Coalfire steam engine= 1 st IR o Electricity and petrol chemicals = 2 nd IR Electricity was largely developed in beginning of 18 th century They were normally talking about static electricity at beginning of 18 th century They learned how to use condensers to generate electrical currents Alesandro Volta invented battery to store electoral energy Early 19 th century- figured out connection between electricity and magnetism Eventually people figured out how to use this o Power of petrol chemicals Petroleum and its derivatives such as gasoline and kerosene They are not really a new thing Coal and petrol chemicals have same origins They offer some advantages that coal cannot o More power for the mass o More power out of a pound of petrol chemicals out of a pound of coal Important to the invention of flight o Power becomes very important to politics Actually drives it a bit Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in order to get some control over oil o Early oil boom is driven by the burning of oil for light etc o Oil being used as fuel drives national advantages EX US one of few powers with control over own supply of oil So did Russia, UK didn’t
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