CN 3-29-11

CN 3-29-11 - 3/29/11 World History: The Age of Democratic...

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3/29/11 World History: The Age of Democratic Revolution 1905-1911 What is the Democratic Revolution? In these revolutions, socialism plays a fairly peripheral role In this group of 6 revs from 1905-11 is a growth of an international politics, a transcultural set of categories that can be plugged in to a variety of situation o Transcultural politics is politics of “liberal democracy” o Involves democracy in the sense of a fairly widespread electorate Electing representatives to legislative institutions with real power Involves constitutionalism Involved the rights whose history goes back to the American and French revolutions Freedom of speech, of oppressed, assembly, to organize political parties o This kind of politics is first politics which fully transcended cultural barriers These are normally anti-foreigner o Russian, Iranian, Ottoman, Portuguese, Mexican and Chinese revolutions o About a quarter of the human race in all these revolutions o None take place in great power, with sort of Russia as a sort of exception o Economic and political in others o Simply economic in some They have substantial role for rural population o Peasantry rising on not just immediate issues but as a class with a national program New phenomenon They are all failures o Do not permanently change politics of any of this country o Certainly not in the way that revolutionaries hoped for
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The Russian Reduction of 1905 Unique country in this period o Was a great power o Where other great powers were liberal or constitutionalist in some degree o Russia was authoritarian Where Czar’s word is law, no constitutional checks on his power No open political activity is permitted Political parties banned o Russia had been changing socially o Beginning late 19 th century they were beginning to industrialize fairly successfully Given their size and dominance of agriculture in their economy they cannot be considered an industrial power in 1905 o Land: Tension between big and owners and peasantry Peasantry was emancipated from serfdom but much land remained in hands of noble land owners Peasants became wage farmers They wished for redistribution of land o Growing middle class Lawyers, professionals, business folk Viewed system of autocracy as archaic Dominated by big noble land owners to the exclusion of industrial bankers and professionals o Russian empire included numerous ethnic minorities who wished to liberate themselves from Russia Most notably the poles o Government oppressed the people
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Fear of aucrata (secret police who penetrated underground) o Movement to avert the attention away from the government to the jewish people “black hundreds” Peasants were encouraged to believe that he source of their problems is the Jews not the government or land owners Will be one of the factors contributing to the rise in Zionism Causes o Defeat in war o Russian revolution happened because Russia was losing the Ruso-Japanese war
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CN 3-29-11 - 3/29/11 World History: The Age of Democratic...

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