Ch10 Study Guide

Ch10 Study Guide - M IBO 3000 Chapter 10 Study Guide...

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MIBO 3000: Chapter 10 Study Guide Prokaryotic Genome Organization and Regulation General Information Central Dogma: all living organisms share this information flow o DNA mRNA protein o Replication: DNA DNA o Transcription: DNA mRNA o Translation: mRNA protein Most prokaryotes have one circular chromosome although there are some exceptions o Ex) Borrelia burgdorferi has a linear chromosome Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in humans (in case you were interested ) DNA gyrases supercoil the DNA in prokaryotic chromosomes Unlike eukaryotic DNA, most of the prokaryotic genome encodes a gene (which makes a protein) or RNA molecules o There are no introns in prokaryotic DNA Many prokaryotes contain plasmids with non-essential genes o Characteristics: Usually plasmids are circular molecules of supercoiled DNA Exception: (again) Borrelia burgdorferi contains linear AND circular plasmids Plasmids are usually 1/10 th - 1/100 th the size of a chromosome Size: approximately 1000bp – 400,000bp (bp = base pair) Plasmids can be present in some species but not others because they don’t contain genes vital to survival/growth Plasmids can contain genes for: Added virulence, antibiotic resistance, genes for using additional carbon/energy sources Make sure you read over the “Review” slides DNA Replication Bi-directional Process: Initiation: o DnaA proteins bind to the origin o Helicase unwinds the dsDNA so each
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strand is now accessible while DNA gyrase removes the supercoils Note that DNA gyrase also creates supercoils—it has two different/opposite functions o Also notice that two replication forks develop Elongation: o She didn’t mention this: DNA Polymerase III binds to the (now separated) strands of DNA and begins adding complementary nucleotides o Replication ends at the terminus for both forks Bacterial RNA Usually single-stranded Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose Contains uracil instead of thymine (U not T) o U binds to A also (just like T would) Three forms: o mRNA: product of transcription from DNA template o tRNA: carries amino acids to the ribosome during translation o rRNA: combines with proteins to make a ribosome Gene Structure and Organization Gene: polynucleotide sequence that codes for a functional product (protein, tRNA,
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Ch10 Study Guide - M IBO 3000 Chapter 10 Study Guide...

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