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Ch12 Study Guide

Ch12 Study Guide - MIBO 3000 Chapter 12 Study Guide...

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MIBO 3000: Chapter 12 Study Guide Microbial Genetics: Recombination and Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) Introduction Why is recombination and HGT beneficial to microbes? What is the difference between horizontal gene transfer and recombination? Mechanisms of Genetic Exchange Horizontal Gene Transfer Recombination Conjugation: (1) F + x F - , (2) Hfr x F - , (3) F’ x F - Homologous Recombination Mobilization of plasmids Site-specific recombination Transformation Transposition: (1) Simple, (2) Composite, (3) Replicative Transduction: (1) Generalized and (2) Specialized Recombination Homologous Recombination There are three principal mechanisms by which prokaryotes can exchange genes. Describe each of these processes briefly. o Transformation: o Conjugation: Process: The ____________ transfers a fragment of its chromosome to the other section of dsDNA called the ________________. What happens to a piece of new DNA if it is NOT recombined? Note: Homologous recombination can also incorporate new ssDNA into a chromosome
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o Transduction: Which mechanism(s) is/are most capable of transferring DNA to distantly related organisms? Which mechanism(s) is/are most effective in transferring DNA to closely related organisms? Why? Horizontal Gene Transfer: Transformation What are the three ways for cells to maximize uptake of DNA from closely related organisms? Note that these three mechanisms suggest that transformation is not simply an accident of ingesting free DNA in the environment. What is a competence factor and how does it allow for DNA uptake? How does Gram+ and Gram- transformation differ? Horizontal Gene Transfer : Conjugation Plasmid conjugation is a way in which donor cells may retain new DNA without the need for recombination Chromosomal DNA can also be transferred via conjugation but it HAS to be recombined afterward (using homologous recombination) Plasmid Conjugation Conjugation is important in the spread of what type of genes between pathogens?
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Ch12 Study Guide - MIBO 3000 Chapter 12 Study Guide...

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