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SG13 - help with this process • After homologous...

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MIBO 3000: Chapter 13 Study Guide Microbial Systematics Taxonomy What are the three elements of Taxonomy? What are some of the advantages of using a taxonomic system? How did the earliest classification systems define a species, and why does this schema NOT work for prokaryotes? Define: convergence. What types of traits are most vulnerable to convergence, and why does this make the use of molecular sequences in modern classification all the more valuable? Most mutations are generally thought to be neutral o Many mutations don’t change the amino acid encoded o Some mutations change the amino acid without affecting the protein’s functioning o Other mutations occur in stretches of DNA that do no encode a product Neutral mutations should never result in convergence Know the 4 characteristics of a good molecular chronometer List 3 reasons why rRNA sequencing is an excellent method for classification What is the first step in sequence comparison? How does secondary structure in rRNA
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Unformatted text preview: help with this process? • After homologous sequences are aligned, phylogenetic trees are reconstructed by computers o Describe these three reconstruction programs: Distance methods Parsimony methods Likelihood methods • Even though phylogenetic trees mainly use ssu rRNA (a small portion of an entire genome), studies using larger portions of the genome devoted to protein synthesis show similar evolutionary relationships o Why? These components interact with each other and coevolve DNA/DNA Hybridization • What is metagenomics , and how does it allow us to obtain genomic sequences for normally uncultivatable microbes? This picture explains DNA/DNA Hybridization fairly well. Note that that DNA/DNA hybridization methods are relatively outdated. This method was once used to gage how closely organisms were related to one another....
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