G1-Lecture02-Historical-Background

G1-Lecture02-Historical-Background - CEGCEG-4011...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CEG CEG-4011 Geotechnical Engineering I 4011 Geotechnical Engineering I Lecture #02 Historical Background L. Prieto-Portar 2009
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Geotechnical engineering has been practiced since antiquity. The first known building code was the Sumerian Code of Lipit-Ishtar, found in Nippur in present day Iraq, and written between 1868 to 1857 BC. It was soon followed by the code written by emperor Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC), the founder of the Babylonian Empire. In the Code, there were detailed punishments prescribed for poorly built foundations and buildings (see the next slide). In India, some earth dams currently in use for irrigation were originally built 40,000 years ago. Chinese engineers developed stone mat foundations 5,000 years ago for buildings placed upon marshy soils of the Yangtze River by linking the stones with lead keys. Egyptian thinking was deeply rooted to their soil. In fact, the word “Egypt” meant “dark soil” in the ancient Coptic language, derived from the black fertile mud that covered the land after the nnual ooding f e ile ch rly une verything volved round e ile amed api annual flooding of the Nile each early June. Everything revolved around the Nile (named “Hapi” by Ramses III), including the development of canals, levees and driven wooden piles 4,500 years ago. Wood piles have recently been unearthed in Lucerne, Switzerland, that are over 4,000 years old. In Persia, aqueducts (“ kanats ”) were dug into mountains 10,000 years ago that are still in daily use today. They supply endless water without pumps. In Peru, steep slopes were stabilized with terraces for cultivation 8,500 years ago (slides of the more recent terraces at Machu Picchu are shown next). The Inca’s developed their famous road system (the Qhapaq Ñan) extending from Columbia to present day Argentina.
Background image of page 2
Some examples of the 280 case laws promulgated by the Babylonian Emperor Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC).
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Overview of the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru.
Background image of page 4
The Incas knew how to build terraced fields with irrigation pipes and collectors. Machu Picchu’s water supply system was built by Inca emperor Pachacuti.
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Machu Picchu’s central main drain is shown here, dividing the urban and rural sectors of the city.
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 17

G1-Lecture02-Historical-Background - CEGCEG-4011...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online