PE-02-Phases-of-Soils

PE-02-Phases-of-Soils - 30 02 Phases of Soils...

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Unformatted text preview: 30 02- Phases of Soils Relationships *01. Convert from metric units to SI and US units. *02. Compaction checked via the voids ratio. *03. Find the moisture w when the soil is fully saturated. *04. Identify the wrong moisture data. *05. Dry unit weight and degree of saturation. *06. Increasing the saturation of a soil. *07. How much water is required to add to a truck due to evaporation? *08. Find & d , n , S and W w . *09 Use the block diagram to find the degree of saturation. *10. Use the block diagram by setting the solids volume V s to 1 m 3 . *11. Use the block diagram by setting the total volume V to 1 m 3 . *12. Use the block diagram to find the dry weight of a saturated soil. *13. Find the weight of water needed to attain saturation. *14. Identify the wrong piece of data. *15. The apparent cheapest soil is not! *16. How many truck-loads for the dam project? *17. How many truck-loads are needed for a housing project? **18. Choose the cheapest fill supplier. **19. Use a matrix to find the missing data. **20. Find the voids ratio of “muck” (a highly organic soil). Symbols for the Phases of Soils e & Voids ratio. G S & Specific gravity of the solids of a soil. n & Porosity. S & Degree of saturation. V & Total volume (solids + water + air). V a & Volume of air. V V & Volume of voids (water + air). V S & Volume of solids. V W & Volume of water. w & Water content (also known as the moisture content). W S & Weight of solids. W W & Weight of water. ¡& Unit weight of the soil. ¡ d & Dry unit weight of the soil. ¡ b & Buoyant unit weight of the soil (same as ¡ ’ = ¡ sat- ¡ w ). ¡ SAT & Unit weight of a saturated soil. ¡ W & Unit weight of water. 31 Basic Concepts and Formulas for the Phases of Soils. (A) Volu metri c Relat ions hips: 1. - Voids ratio e V S V e V = range s from 0 to infinity. Typical values of sands are: very dense 0.4 to very loose 1.0 Typical values for clays are: firm 0.3 to very soft 1.5. 2 . - Porosity n ( ) 100% V V n V = ranges from 0% to 100%. The porosity provides a measure of the permeability of a soil. The interrelationship of the voids ratio and porosity are given by, 32 1 1 n e e and n n e = =- + 3. - Saturation S 100% W V V S x V = ranges from 0% to 100%. (B) Weight Relationships: 4. - Water content w 100% W S W w x W = Values range from 0% to over 500%; also known as moisture content . 5. – Unit weight of a soil & S W S W A W W W V V V V γ + = = + + The unit weight may range from being dry to being saturated. Some engineers use “ bulk density ¡ ” to refer to the ratio of mass of the solids and water contained in a unit volume (in Mg / m 3 ). Note that, . W m g g which is the equivalent of F ma V V γ ρ = = = = 6. - Dry unit weight & d 1 S d W V w γ γ = = + The soil is perfectly dry (its moisture is zero). 33 7. - The unit weight of water & w 3 ( ) 62.4 1 / 1 / 9.81 / W w W w W where g F ma V pcf g ml kg liter kN m γ γ ρ γ = = = = = = = Note that the above is for fresh water. Salt water is 64 pcf, etc. Note that the above is for fresh water....
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PE-02-Phases-of-Soils - 30 02 Phases of Soils...

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