MET4994_5994_RS_Lec29_S11

MET4994_5994_RS_Lec29_S11 - MET MET 4994 Remote Sensing...

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MET 4994 Remote Sensing: Radar and Satellite Meteorology MET 5994 Remote Sensing in Meteorology Lecture 29: April 4, 2011 1. Operational Remote Sensing in Microwave 2. Precipitation Retrieval
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Satellite Imagers and Sounders Imagers: measure the horizontal field of meteorological parameter(s); no vertical information Sounders: are able to measure temperature and moisture changes with height. Sounders from the past two decades used about 20 spectral bands, while current sounders are hyperspectral, i.e., they use an order of magnitude more bands. For example, the polar-orbiting NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) uses 65 spectral radiances for temperature, 42 for water vapor, 26 for ozone, and 23 for surface temperature. Hyperspectral sounders provide profiles of about 1K/1-2km depth.
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Non-raining clouds are nearly transparent (no absorption, no scattering) in microwave band, but raining clouds are not. Thus microwave is very useful to detect convection and precipitation. Passive microwave sensors detect the microwave scattering and emission signatures of liquid water or ice particles. In 10 GHz channel, ice scattering can be neglected. Only emission from rain and liquid water and background (ocean or land) is significant.
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