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Bio Lab 2 - Lab#2 Enzymes How Different Factors Affect...

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Lab #2 Enzymes: How Different Factors Affect Activity Joe Wallace Section 4 Date of the lab: 9/29/2008 Lab Report Due: 10/6/2008 Group Members: Lane Zarubi, Bryan Albrez, Shaun Cahian, and Michael Rashmir Lab Instructor: Kevin Badik
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Introduction: Each living Cell must go through millions of chemical reactions in order to stay alive. If it were not for enzymes, the chemical reactions each cell must make would go to slow to sustain life. Enzymes act as a catalyst for chemical reactions, helping them complete more rapidly. Enzymes are large protein molecules, which have a region on its surface that are called active sites (Lab Exercise). Active sites are able to recognize one or more specific substrate molecules. The substrate is chemically attracted to the active site and binds there until the reaction is complete. What happens is the substrate is converted to one or more product molecules, which are then released from the active site. Due to the fact that each enzyme molecule can be used over and over again, enzymes can be present in much lower concentrations than the substrate without affecting the reaction that is taking place. The more enzyme molecules present, means the more active sites available to bind with substrate molecules. If this is the case, the reaction rate will be increased significantly. There is a maximum rate that can be reached, the Vmax, which happens when all of the active sites on the enzyme are filled with substrate molecules at any given moment and the reaction cannot go any faster. Enzymes actually enable metabolism to occur at cool temperatures by reducing the amount of activation energy required to break the bonds of reactant molecules (Campbell, Reece, Simon 2007).
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