54_accounting_standard_details_small.pdf - Feedback [email protected] Accounting Standards AS No Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15

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Unformatted text preview: Feedback : [email protected] Accounting Standards AS No. Notes : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 revised 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Name of Accounting Standard Disclosure of Accounting Policies Valuation of Inventory Cash Flow Statement Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies Depreciation Accounting Construction Contracts Accounting for Research and Development Revenue Recognition Accounting for Fixed Assets The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates Accounting for Government Grants Accounting for Investments Accounting for Amalgamations Accounting for Retirement Benefits in the Financial Statements of Employers Employee Benefits Borrowing Costs Segment Reporting Related Party Disclosures Leases Earning Per Share Consolidated Financial Statements Accounting for Taxes on Income Accounting for Investments in Associates in Consolidated Financial Statements Discontinuing Operations Interim Financial Reporting Intangible Assets Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures Impairment of Assets Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement Financial Instruments: Presentation Feedback : [email protected] Pg. No. 2 3-6 7-11 12-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-43 44 45-49 50-58 59-67 68-73 74-79 80-88 89-95 96-123 124-127 128-140 141-147 148-158 159-168 169-174 175-180 181-185 186-191 192-198 199-215 216-224 225-244 245-254 255-285 286-306 Contact : IshaN Padia-93766 08069 1 Feedback : [email protected] Notes : 2 Feedback : [email protected] Accounting Standard – 1, Disclosure of Accounting Policies (issued in 1979) (This Accounting Standard includes paragraphs 24-27 set in bold italic type and paragraphs 1-23 set in plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main principles. This Accounting Standard should be read in the context of the Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards.) The following is the text of the Accounting Standard (AS) 1 issued by the Accounting Standards Board, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India on ‘ Disclosure of Accounting Policies’ . The Standard deals with the disclosure of significant accounting policies followed in preparing and presenting financial statements. In the initial years, this accounting standard will be recommendatory in character. During this period, this standard is recommended for use by companies listed on a recognised stock exchange and other large commercial, industrial and business enterprises in the public and private sectors. Introduction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. This statement deals with the disclosure of significant accounting policies followed in preparing and presenting financial statements. The view presented in the financial statements of an enterprise of its state of affairs and of the profit or loss can be significantly affected by the accounting policies followed in the preparation and presentation of the financial statements. The accounting policies followed vary from enterprise to enterprise. Disclosure of significant accounting policies followed is necessary if the view presented is to be properly appreciated. The disclosure of some of the accounting policies followed in the preparation and presentation of the financial statements is required by law in some cases. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has, in Statements issued by it, recommended the disclosure of certain accounting policies, e.g., translation policies in respect of foreign currency items. In recent years, a few enterprises in India have adopted the practice of including in their annual reports to shareholders a separate statement of accounting policies followed in preparing and presenting the financial statements. In general, however, accounting policies are not at present regularly and fully disclosed in all financial statements. Many enterprises include in the Notes on the Accounts, descriptions of some of the significant accounting policies. But the nature and degree of disclosure vary considerably between the corporate and the non-corporate sectors and between units in the same sector. Even among the few enterprises that presently include in their annual reports a separate statement of accounting policies, considerable variation exists. The statement of accounting policies forms part of accounts in some cases while in others it is given as supplementary information. The purpose of this Statement is to promote better understanding of financial statements by establishing through an accounting standard the disclosure of significant accounting policies and the manner in which accounting policies are disclosed in the financial statements. Such disclosure would also facilitate a more meaningful comparison between financial statements of different enterprises. 3 Feedback : [email protected] Explanation Fundamental Accounting Assumptions 9. 10. Certain fundamental accounting assumptions underlie the preparation and presentation of financial statements. They are usually not specifically stated because their acceptance and use are assumed. Disclosure is necessary if they are not followed. The following have been generally accepted as fundamental accounting assumptions:— A. Going Concern The enterprise is normally viewed as a going concern, that is, as continuing in operation for the foreseeable future. It is assumed that the enterprise has neither the intention nor the necessity of liquidation or of curtailing materially the scale of the operations. B. Consistency It is assumed that accounting policies are consistent from one period to another. C. Accrual Revenues and costs are accrued, that is, recognised as they are earned or incurred (and not as money is received or paid) and recorded in the financial statements of the periods to which they relate. (The considerations affecting the process of matching costs with revenues under the accrual assumption are not dealt with in this Statement.) Nature of Accounting Policies 11. 12. 13. The accounting policies refer to the specific accounting principles and the methods of applying those principles adopted by the enterprise in the preparation and presentation of financial statements. There is no single list of accounting policies which are applicable to all circumstances. The differing circumstances in which enterprises operate in a situation of diverse and complex economic activity make alternative accounting principles and methods of applying those principles acceptable. The choice of the appropriate accounting principles and the methods of applying those principles in the specific circumstances of each enterprise calls for considerable judgement by the management of the enterprise. The various statements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India combined with the efforts of government and other regulatory agencies and progressive managements have reduced in recent years the number of acceptable alternatives particularly in the case of corporate enterprises. While continuing efforts in this regard in future are likely to reduce the number still further, the availability of alternative accounting principles and methods of applying those principles is not likely to be eliminated altogether in view of the differing circumstances faced by the enterprises. Areas in which Differing Accounting Policies are Encountered 14. 4 The following are examples of the areas in which different accounting policies may be adopted by different enterprises. ? Methods of depreciation, depletion and amortization ? Treatment of expenditure during construction ? Conversion or translation of foreign currency items ? Valuation of inventories ? Treatment of goodwill ? Valuation of investments ? Treatment of retirement benefits ? Recognition of profit on long-term contracts Feedback : [email protected] 15. ? Valuation of fixed assets ? Treatment of contingent liabilities. The above list of examples is not intended to be exhaustive. Considerations in the Selection of Accounting Policies 16. 17. The primary consideration in the selection of accounting policies by an enterprise is that the financial statements prepared and presented on the basis of such accounting policies should represent a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the enterprise as at the balance sheet date and of the profit or loss for the period ended on that date. For this purpose, the major considerations governing the selection and application of accounting policies are:— A. Prudence In view of the uncertainty attached to future events, profits are not anticipated but recognised only when realised though not necessarily in cash. Provision is made for all known liabilities and losses even though the amount cannot be determined with certainty and represents only a best estimate in the light of available information. B. Substance over Form The accounting treatment and presentation in financial statements of transactions and events should be governed by their substance and not merely by the legal form. C. Materiality Financial statements should disclose all “material” items, i.e. items the knowledge of which might influence the decisions of the user of the financial statements. Disclosure of Accounting Policies 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. To ensure proper understanding of financial statements, it is necessary that all significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation and presentation of financial statements should be disclosed. Such disclosure should form part of the financial statements. It would be helpful to the reader of financial statements if they are all disclosed as such in one place instead of being scattered over several statements, schedules and notes. Examples of matters in respect of which disclosure of accounting policies adopted will be required are contained in paragraph 14. This list of examples is not, however, intended to be exhaustive. Any change in an accounting policy which has a material effect should be disclosed. The amount by which any item in the financial statements is affected by such change should also be disclosed to the extent ascertainable. Where such amount is not ascertainable, wholly or in part, the fact should be indicated. If a change is made in the accounting policies which has no material effect on the financial statements for the current period but which is reasonably expected to have a material effect in later periods, the fact of such change should be appropriately disclosed in the period in which the change is adopted. Disclosure of accounting policies or of changes therein cannot remedy a wrong or inappropriate treatment of the item in the accounts. Accounting Standard 24. All significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation and presentation of financial statements should be disclosed. 5 Feedback : [email protected] 25. 26. 27. 6 The disclosure of the significant accounting policies as such should form part of the financial statements and the significant accounting policies should normally be disclosed in one place. Any change in the accounting policies which has a material effect in the current period or which is reasonably expected to have a material effect in later periods should be disclosed. In the case of a change in accounting policies which has a material effect in the current period, the amount by which any item in the financial statements is affected by such change should also be disclosed to the extent ascertainable. Where such amount is not ascertainable, wholly or in part, the fact should be indicated. If the fundamental accounting assumptions, viz. Going Concern, Consistency and Accrual are followed in financial statements, specific disclosure is not required. If a fundamental accounting assumption is not followed, the fact should be disclosed. Feedback : [email protected] Accounting Standard – 2, Valuation of Inventories (issued in June, 1981; revised in 1999) (This Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold italic type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main principles. This Accounting Standard should be read in the context of its objective and the Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards.) The following is the text of the revised Accounting Standard (AS) 2, ‘ Valuation of Inventories’ , issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. This revised Standard supersedes Accounting Standard (AS) 2, ‘ Valuation of Inventories’ , issued in June, 1981. The revised standard comes into effect in respect of accounting periods commencing on or after 1.4.1999 and is mandatory in nature. Objective A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the determination of the value at which inventories are carried in the financial statements until the related revenues are recognised. This Statement deals with the determination of such value, including the ascertainment of cost of inventories and any write-down thereof to net realisable value. Scope 1. 2. This Statement should be applied in accounting for inventories other than: A. work in progress arising under construction contracts, including directly related service contracts (see Accounting Standard (AS) 7, Accounting for Construction Contracts) B. work in progress arising in the ordinary course of business of service providers; C. shares, debentures and other financial instruments held as stockin-trade; and D. producers’ inventories of livestock, agricultural and forest products, and mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well established practices in those industries. The inventories referred to in paragraph 1 (d) are measured at net realizable value at certain stages of production. This occurs, for example, when agricultural crops have been harvested or mineral oils, ores and gases have been extracted and sale is assured under a forward contract or a government guarantee, or when a homogenous market exists and there is a negligible risk of failure to sell. These inventories are excluded from the scope of this Statement. Definitions 3. The following terms are used in this Statement with the meanings specified: Inventories are assets: a. held for sale in the ordinary course of business; b. in the process of production for such sale; or 7 Feedback : [email protected] c. in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. 4. Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale, for example, merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, computer software held for resale, or land and other property held for resale. Inventories also encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress being produced, by the enterprise and include materials, maintenance supplies, consumables and loose tools awaiting use in the production process. Inventories do not include machinery spares which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed asset and whose use is expected to be irregular; such machinery spares are accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 10, Accounting for Fixed Assets. Measurement of Inventories 5. Inventories should be valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of Inventories 6. The cost of inventories should comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of Purchase 7. The costs of purchase consist of the purchase price including duties and taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities), freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition. Trade discounts, rebates, duty drawbacks and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase. Costs of Conversion 8. 9. 8 The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the units of production, such as direct labour. They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings and the cost of factory management and administration. Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production, such as indirect materials and indirect labour. The allocation of fixed production overheads for the purpose of their inclusion in the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on an average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed production overheads allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed Feedback : [email protected] 10. production overheads allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads are assigned to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities. A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process when the products become separately identifiable, or at the completion of production. Most by-products as well as scrap or waste materials, by their nature, are immaterial. When this is the case, they are often measured at net realizable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product. As a result, the carrying amount of the main product is not materially different from its cost. Other Costs 11. 12. Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. For example, it may be appropriate to include overheads other than production overheads or the costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories. Interest and other borrowing costs are usually considered as not relating to bringing the inventories to their present location and condition and are, therefore, usually not included in the cost of inventories. Exclusions from the Cost of Inventories 13. In determining the cost of inventories in accordance with paragraph 6, it is appropriate to exclude certain costs and recognise them as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. Examples of such costs are: A. abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour, or other production costs; B. storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process prior to a further production stage; C. administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing the invent...
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