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Lecture_8-Atypical_Neurotransmitters-1_slide - Lecture 8:...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8: Atypical Neurotransmitters Lecture 8 Objectives: Atypical Neurotransmitters Define growth factors and contrast with neurotrophin Describe the intracellular signaling casacade(s) activated by the stimulation of Trk receptors Match each neurotrophin with its appropriate Trk receptor and outline how the interaction of each neurotrophin with its Trk receptor leads to effects upon gene transcription List the major superfamilies of growth factors and provide examples for each Compare and contrast the genuine purines adenine and guanine with purinergic neurotransmitters adenosine and ATP List the major types of purinergic neurotransmitters and compare and contrast their mechanisms of storage and release Compare and contrast the 2 major types of nucleoside transporters Compare and contrast the major subtypes of purinergic receptors and indicate which are most concentrated in the brain Explain the mechanism of action of caffeine Describe the signaling pathway associated with CB receptor activation and explain the mechanism of action of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana Describe the synthesis pathway of 2-AG and anandamide Define retrograde messenger and explain how endocannabinoids function to inhibit presynaptic activity Describe the termination of endocannabinoid signaling Summarize the therapeutic potential of agonists/antagonists at CB1 receptors and FAAH/MGL inhibitors List the 3 enzymes involved in nitric oxide and carbon monoxide synthesis Describe the synthesis pathway for nitric oxide and outline the role for NMDA receptors in this regard List the 4 major functions of NO and explain how excessive glutamate release can lead to neurotoxicity Describe the synthesis pathway for carbon monoxide and outline the role for Group1 mGluRs in this regard Peptide Growth Factors Proteins that stimulate cellular proliferation and promote cell survival Often referred to as neurotrophic factors or neurotrophins (act exclusively in the nervous system); influence cell cycle, growth, differentiation and neuronal survival NGF (nerve growth factor) was the first to be characterized Some act only during restricted periods of development; others act throughout life Synthesized by a wide variety of cell types incl. neurons, glia Secreted into the EC fluid, diffuse and then act either on other cells (paracrine) or on releasing cell (autocrine) At least 15 different growth factors promote the development and survival of neurons Growth factors can also regulate the synthesis and release of other neurotransmitters (contribute to synaptic plasticity) Varieties of Growth Factors All growth factors, including neurotrophic factors are synthesized by transcription and translation (as they are proteins) Believed to be stored (like other peptide transmitters) in...
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Lecture_8-Atypical_Neurotransmitters-1_slide - Lecture 8:...

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