class7.2011.post

class7.2011.post - FINAL EXAM LOCATION CHANGE Final Exam...

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FINAL EXAM LOCATION CHANGE Final Exam will now be held in Lotte Lehman Concert Hall (opera glasses optional) No change in date or time: Tuesday, March 15, 4-7 PM
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0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 <20 20-22 23-25 26-28 29-31 32-34 35-37 38-40 Mean = 31 Approx. Grades : 34-40 A 29-33 B 23-28 C < 23 D
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Male Sex Hormones GnRH (Leydig cells) Gonadotrophins Sex hormones GnRH pulse generator responsive to many internal and external conditions
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Effects of Testosterone/Androgens Organizational (developmental) effects Produce relatively irreversible effects on body and brain E.g., sex-differentiation of genitalia Possible early effects on brain organization Activational effects More temporary and reversible effects E.g., many secondary sex traits in nonhuman species that atrophy when testosterone is withdrawn (antlers during nonbreeding season)
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Schematic Model of Specialized Mechanisms Genes Brain structures Behavioral output Environmental input “Developmental program” Contextual input “Cognitive program” Testosterone (Activational Effect) Early Sex Hormone Exposure (Organizational Effect)
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Organizational Effects of Androgens on Mating Psychology/Gender Identity Case-study (Diamond, 1997): “John” born male (normal) but at 8 months during a routine surgery to correct a urination problem “his penis was accidentally burnt beyond repair” “On the advice of consultants” (based on belief that individuals are psychosexually neutral at birth) child was treated as a girl and surgically reassigned to be “unambiguously raised as a female” (Joan) Note that prenatal and early exposure to androgens would be male- typical “Despite Joan’s rearing, she did not feel to be a girl, preferred association with boys, and pursued typical boys’ activities and interests.” At age 14, “Joan dramatically rebelled at living as a girl. …”despite orchiectomy and estrogen therapy, which led to breast development and rounded hips” (activational effects of hormones)
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Gender re-assignment case study (continued): “Without knowing her history, Joan, at age 14, revealed to her endocrinologist, from whom she had been receiving estrogen therapy since age 12, ‘I suspected I was a boy since the second grade.’ “…subsequently requested and received a mastectomy and phalloplasty and without hesitation lived and was accepted as a male.” “After John transitioned to living as a boy, his interest in girls was quickly evident. He rapidly sought female erotic company.” Case appears to demonstrate organizational effects of early androgen exposure despite minimal activational exposure to androgens and gender role socialization intended to produce opposite effects
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5-α Reductase Deficiency 5αRD: deficiency in enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) This is another type of androgen Production of high levels of DHT necessary for masculinization of genitals Otherwise genetically normal (XY), T producing males Effects on body:
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