Buss.jealousy - PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Report SEX...

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PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Report SEX DIFFERENCES IN JEALOUSY: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology David M. Buss, Randy J. Larsen, Drew Westen, and Jennifer Semmelrolh University of Michigan Abstract— In species with internal female fertilization, males risk both lowered pa- ternity probability and investment in ri- val gametes if their mates have sexual contact with other males. Females of such species do not risk lowered mater- nity probability through partner infidel- ity, but they do risk the diversion of their mates' commitment and resources to ri- val females. Three studies tested the hy- pothesis that sex differences in jealousy emerged in humans as solutions to the respective adaptive problems faced by each sex. In Study I, men and women selected which event would upset them more a partner's sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity. Study 2 recorded physiological responses (heart rate, electrodermal response, coiTUgator su- percilii contraction) while subjects imag- ined separately the two types of partner infidelity. Study 3 tested the effect of be- ing in a committed sexual relationship on the activation ofjealousy. All studies showed large sex differences, confirming hypothesized sex linkages in jealousy ac- tivation. In species with internal female fertil- ization and gestation, features of repro- ductive biology characteristic of all 4,000 species of mammals, including humans, males face an adaptive problem not con- fronted by females—uncertainty in their paternity of offspring. Maternity proba- bility in mammals rarely or never devi- ates from 100%. Compromises in pater- nity probability come at substantial re- productive cost to the male—the loss of mating effort expended, including time, energy, risk, nuptial gifts, and mating op- portunity costs. A cuckolded male also loses the female's parental effort, which becomes channeled to a competitor's ga- metes. The adaptive problem of pater- nity uncertainty is exacerbated in spe- cies in which males engage in some postzygotic parental investment (Triv- ers, 1972). Males risk investing re- sources in putative offspring that are ge- netically unrelated. These multiple and severe reproduc- tive costs should have imposed strong selection pressure on males to defend against cuckoldry. Indeed, the literature is replete with examples of evolved an- ticuckoldry mechanisms in lions (Ber- tram, 1975), bluebirds (Power, 1975), doves (Erickson & Zenone, 1976), nu- merous insect species (Thornhill & Al- cock, 1983), afld nonhuman primates (Hrdy, 1979). ^Sijce humans arguably show more paternafinvestment than any other of the 200 species of primates (Al- pressure should have ope ratgde specially intensely on human male^^Symons (1979); Daly, Wilson, and Weghorst (1982); and Wilson and Daly (in press) have hypothesized that male sexual jeal- ousy evolved as a solution to this adap- tive problem (but see Hupka, 1991, for an alternative view). Men who were in-
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2011 for the course PSY 146 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSB.

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Buss.jealousy - PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Report SEX...

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