11._Drugs_Slides

11._Drugs_Slides - Put away your things Close your eyes...

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8/17/2010 1 Put away your things Close your eyes Increased tolerance to the drug Physiological withdrawal when substance use is reduced or ceased Difficulty in controlling substance-taking Increased salience of drug-seeking Rapid reinstatement after abstinence
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8/17/2010 2 Found naturally in some beans, leaves, and fruits World’s most widely used psychoactive substance - 90 % of North Americans FDA: “safe food substance” Acts as natural insecticide
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8/17/2010 3 Adenosine: released by neurons and glial cells Neurotransmitter: Binds to receptors of inhibitory neurons Neuromodulator: Increases dilation of capillaries in brain Caffeine binds to adenosine receptors, but without activating Blocks inhibitory effects of adenosine Decreases dilation of capillaries, reducing blood flow by 25%
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8/17/2010 4 Enhanced alertness, energy, coordination Sources of caffeine may promote health: - Green tea consumption and reduced DNA damage - Coffee and reduced heart disease in women - Antioxidants, perhaps in synergy with caffeine Headache relief Two general mechanisms of tolerance: - Metabolic - Functional (e.g. # of receptors, sensitivity)
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