Lecture 02 - Principles of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Lecture 02 - Principles of Carbohydrate Metabolism - L...

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Lecture 02 - Principles of Carbohydrate Metabolism How does body know when to make glycogen when you have carbohydrate rich meal and when it knows how to break it down when you are in fasting mode Catabolic pathways vs anabolic pathways - Catabolism o Take in fuel and break it down to gain energy (to carry out biological processes) o You would use the ATP (mainly) to drive anabolic pathways o **catabolism is our focus - Anabolism o Synthesizing macromolecules (like lipids) o Or for nerve impulses Adenosine Triphosphate - ATP: Adenine + sugar + 3 phosphates o Turning over the gamma phosphate of the ATP will make energy - Average 70 kg person turns over 40kg of ATP per day o With just one hour of sitting here o Anything you do to impair the generate of ATP would be detrimental - We use this a lot! Make and Break down ATP Potential Fuels - Carbohydrates o Most rapidly mobilized o Primary source of immediate energy o Storage: glycogen - Lipids o Most abundant o Long term energy supply o Storage: triglycerides o **if we only use lipids it will be good source of energy for many months** - Amino acids o Catalysis o Structure o Building blocks for proteins o Normally not a major fuel source o Source: Muscle Carbohydrates - Disacharides Lactose , Sucrose - Starches Amylose - Linear chains α 1,4 Glycosidic bonds Amylopectin - Branched Chains α 1,4 Glycosidic bonds α 1,6 Glycosidic bonds at branches 1 branch per 30 glucose monomers - Glycogen Branched Chains α 1,4 Glycosidic bonds α 1,6 Glycosidic bonds at branches 1 branch per 10 glucose monomers **glycogen is the same as amylopectin -- but with more branches easier to break down/more sites to add/take way carbon - Cellulose Linear Chains β 1,4 Glycosidic bonds **we cannot break down cellulose, it only serves as fiber How we digest carbohydrates (there are two places) - First place in the silva has amylases o Break down large poly to more manageable smaller
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Lecture 02 - Principles of Carbohydrate Metabolism - L...

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