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Lecture 05 _ TCA cycle and Gluconeogenesis

Lecture 05 _ TCA cycle and Gluconeogenesis - of mito o...

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Lecture 05 – TCA cycle and Gluconeogenesis Mitochondria: energy maker ATP! - Outer membrane o Freely permeable to small molecules and ions - Inner membrane (with all the cristae) o Permeability barrier o Impermeable to most small molecules and ions, including H+ o Where the oxidation will be going on o Contains: respiratory electron carriers (complexes I- IV), ADP-ATP translocases, ATP synthases, other membrane transporters - Matrix o Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex o Citric acid cycle enzymes o Fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes o Amino acid oxidation enxyme o DNA, ribosomes o Many other enzymes o ATP, ADP, Pi, Mg++, Ca++, K+ o Many soluble metabolic intermediate - Some molecules cannot be transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane. - Separate pools exist in the cytoplasm and in the matrix of the mitochondria. (can’t diffuse need specific transporters!) o NAD/NADH o FAD/FADH 2 o ADP/ATP ADP/ATP translocator (most abundant) It takes ATP or ADP from outside/inside and translocate them (takes ADP in mito and ATP out
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Unformatted text preview: of mito) o malate/a-ketoglutarate o glutamate/aspartate o Pyruvate -Specific shuttles are required to transport most molecules across the inner mitochondrial membrane.-Mito transporters-Inner mito membrane permeability barrier o The pyruvate has transporter so its fine, but we need to get the NADH into the mito to keep the glycolysis to keep going o Specific shuttles are required to transport reducing equivalents across inner membrane Glycerol-Phosphate Shuttle (for NADH & FADH2)-3-Phospho glycerol dehydrogenase (cytoplasm)-Phosphor glycerol dehydrogenase (flavoprotein dehydro mitochondrial membrane)-NADH (cyto) FADH 2 (mito) o Allow FAD to go into electron transport chain-The phosphoglycerol is the one that transfer the FADH2 electron tranaport chain-NADH (cty) ~ FADH2 (mito) 2 ATP **better yield with shunting! Gluconeogenesis:-There are 4 new enzymes Regulators...
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