Lecture 07 - Bioenergetics ATP and Mitochondrial Functioning

Lecture 07 - Bioenergetics ATP and Mitochondrial...

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Lecture 07 - Bioenergetics ATP and Mitochondrial Functioning - the most important step is generating aerobic ATP - uses NADH and FADH2 from krebs o occurs in Mito o uses cytochromes, which creates a proton gradient as they pass electron Three forms of “quick” energy Mechanism Energy Example Phosphate bond Chemical potential ADP/ATP Electron carriers Electronic potential NAD+/NADH Gradients (usually H+) Chemiosmotic Mitochondrial matrix In vivo thse forms are rapidly, constantly interconverted Terminology - Prophyrin o A precursor to a heme structure, typically without metal ion - Heme o A non-protein molecular structure containing a porphyrin and metal ion (usually Fe) o Structures: are non-protein prosthetic groups; iron can be associated or covalently attached to proteins through the heme - Cytochrome o A protein or complex of proteins with a heme prosthetic group P450-class enzymes Mitochondrial electron transport cytochromes Hbg and myoglobin o The heme is buried in the protein (cytochrome); Heme = **Critical to tracking the electrons - Mitochondrial o Inner membrane: impermeable to most small ions, small and large molecules Electron transport chain location (NAD, FMN, CoQ is where it starts!) With ATPase synthesizing structures within the membrane o Matrix: TCA cycle enzymes, Fatty acid oxidation enzymes, mtDNA, mtRNA, mitochondrial ribosomes Where energy equivalents are generated (FADH2, NADH) Then it feed into the electron transport chain that generates ATP - Apoptosis, Cytochrome C and Mito o Mito plays a central role in apoptosis Many apoptosis pathways affect the mito membrane permeability Cyto C leaks into the cytosol Activates caspases Destroys the cell Cyto c is released from its association with the inner mito membrane by BCL2 and causes chain of events cell death Phosphate bond energy: ATP – highest bond of energy! - components: adenine (nitrogenous base, see in DNA), ribose (5-ring sugar and 2 OH) Adenosine (Adenine + ribose), Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP, adenosine + phosphates, energy carrier) Electron carriers: - NAD+ and FAD reducing by adding in Hydride ion / H radical o NAD+ you can pick up an electron make NADH (stores energy) o FADH2 similar - Coenzyme Q - Ubiquinone and Ubiquinol carries 2 electrons, lipophilic, moves electron inside
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM ERM taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 07 - Bioenergetics ATP and Mitochondrial...

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