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Unformatted text preview: Describe the characteristics of malignant cells : abnormal regulation of growth and survival, ability to invade and metastasize, genetic instability Describe essentials of cancer diagnosis : biopsy, histological and/or cytological examination of lesions, need to determine the type of cancer and the tissue of origin Correlate cancer : incidence with geographic and environmental factors, age, heredity, and acquired pre-neoplastic disorders Explain how epidemiological data helps identify causes of cancer Vocab: Tumor Benign Malignant Neoplasia Cancer Palliative 1. Overview of the qualities of a malignant cell must have a. Human = complicated volvox i. Many cells, each with specific jobs, each knows where it belongs ii. If there is a need for them, a good cell will reproduce itself until the need is met iii. If it is no longer needed or is hurt too bad to heal, a good cell commits suicide (apoptosis) and the parts get recycled b. What does it take to be a cancer cell i. Make your own growth signals (grow) ii. Ignore antigrowth signals iii. Evade apoptosis (no suicide) iv. Keep growing forever v. Create feeder blood vessels vi. Invade normal tissue c. Evading apoptosis i. Sometimes cells commit suicide and this is very good ii. Cells no longer needed, like fingerweb no longer needed or white blood cells that have done their job iii. Cells so genetically screwed up that they dont think they can fix themselves will commit suicide- apoptosis d. If you dont fix cancer cell grow too much, die too less tumor e. We all have few mutant lymphocytes that do not undergo apoptosis when they are supposed to these lymphocytes are immortal i. Lymphocytes forget to die f. The problem with cells that does not undergo apoptosis i. Older it gets, the weirder it gets, these immortal cells have a long time to accumulate other mutations ii. A normal cell that gets bad mutation will often kill itself immortal cells will not g. NEOPLASIA = new growth i. Cells are suppose to get signals from other cells to let them know what is going on around them (communication) ii. Cancer cells listen mostly to their own signals h. BENIGN TUMORS = growths that might push aside normal tissue but do not dig into and invade normal tissue i. Benign tumors CANNOT METASTASIZE move to other places in the body. They grow where they started ii. Tissue needs blood iii. To grow large, tumors have to be able to summon new vessels to feed them. These vessels are not cancerous- but they feed the cancer i. Tissue Invasion i. Malignant cells can dig into adjacent normal tissue and infiltrate...
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- Spring '11