Lecture 03 Cancer Etiology

Lecture 03 Cancer Etiology - Define cancer and related...

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Define cancer and related vocabulary terms Describe the mechanisms of, and give examples of: - Chemical carcinogenesis - Radiation carcinogenesis - Viral carcinogenesis - Microbial carcinogenesis Vocab - Benign - Malignant - Carcinoma - Sarcoma - Lymphoma - Leukemia - Transformation - Invasion - Metastasis - Direct acting agents - Indirect acting agents - Mutagen - Initiator - Promoter Outline: What is cancer? What causes cancer? - Inherited defects o Rare - External factors o Chemicals o Radiation o Viruses and Bacteria Will we ever cure cancer? 1. What is cancer? a. 2 nd most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease) b. Image – remember that cancer is uncontrollable cell growth (compare histo normal slides with the increase in cells) c. Diagnosis i. Metastatis sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma 1. Metastatis = spread to distant site 2. Sarcomatoid = looks like a sarcoma (very poorly differentiated – doesn’t look like the kidney anymore) 3. Renal cell = kidney 4. Carcinoma = malignancy of epithelial cells ii. Bottom line = very aggressive malignant neoplasm (tumor) d. Uncontrolled proliferation of cells (lost of control) i. Disease of genetics and molecular biology e. Capable of local invasion and/or metastasis f. **understand cancer at the level of histology and molecular and cellular biology and genetics basis of understanding cancer is rooted at the cellular and molecular level g. Cancer is not a single entity h. Many many types (carcinomas, sarcomas, melanoma, leukemias, lymphomas, etc) i. BENIGN vs MALIGNANT BENIGN MALIGNANT - Remains localized - Will not spread to other sites - Can be surgically removed - Patient will survive (most likely) - - Can get big but will not spread - Invade and destroy adjacent structures - Metastasize (sometimes) - May lead to death - j. Carcinomas : malignancy of EPITHELIAL CELLS i. Epithelial cells – cover things ii. Gut, squamous (skin), lung, bladder, breast, etc k. Sarcomas : malignancy of MESENCHYMAL CELLS i. Soft tissue, connective tissue, bone etc l. Leukemias, lymphomas : malignancies of the cells of the IMMUNE SYSTEM m. Cell cycle : system regulating the division of cells n. Transform : loss of the normal checks on the cell cycle, implies of ability of cells to divide indefinitely o. Invasion : local spread of cancer p. Metastasis : discontinuous spread of cancer to a new site (e.g. prostate bone) Describe the mechanisms of, and give examples of: - Chemical carcinogenesis - Radiation carcinogenesis - Viral carcinogenesis - Microbial carcinogenesis
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Vocab - Direct acting agents - Indirect acting agents - Mutagen - Initiator - Promoter Outline: What is cancer? What causes cancer? - Inherited defects o Rare - External factors o Chemicals o Radiation o Viruses and Bacteria Will we ever cure cancer? 2. What causes cancer?
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM HB taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 03 Cancer Etiology - Define cancer and related...

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