Lecture 14 Molecular Profiling of Cancer

Lecture 14 Molecular Profiling of Cancer - Review how...

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Review how histological and/or cytological examination is required for the diagnosis of cancer, and how (immuno)-histochemical staining aids in determining the tissue origin of cancer cells Describe the characteristics of a useful tumor maker, define specificity and sensitivity, and explain how specificity and sensitivity influence its utility Explain the purposes of molecular profiling or cancer: screening and diagnosis, prognostic information, predicting and following response to treatment Explain the value and limitations of circulating tumor markers, and cite at least two examples Vocab: biopsy, tumor marker, specificity and sensitivity, positive predictive value, prognosis, screening, staging, gene expression profiling, somatic and germline mutations, sporadic tumor, epidermal growth factor receptor, Her-2, Ras, B-Raf, BRCA-1/2, estrogen receptor, immunohistochemistry, prostate- specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, chrionic gonadotropin Outline: The purpose of making profiling The ideal marker: sensitive and specific Tissue diagnosis of cancer Circulating tumor markers (usefulness/limitations) Genetic markers in sporadic tumors (usefulness for prognosis and therapy) Gene expression profiling Testing for cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1/2 in breast cancer) - The purpose of m olecular profiling of o Screening (early detection) o Diagnosis (determine the origin of cancer cells) o Staging and assess m e nt of prognosis How m uch cancer? How a ggressive? How far has it spre ad o Choice of therapy (predicting response) o Monitoring treat m e nt response, remission, relapse o Targets for imaging and therapy Radioactivity-labeled a ntibodies target tumor-specific Sm all molecule inhibitors target m utated signaling o Lung cancer: thre e types , develop a nd basing that on o Cancer? – m alignant, where it com es from, how to treat? - The ideal m arker – Sensitive a nd specific o - Do we have a diagnostic m arker that tells us if a cell is o No, BUT we use a combination of criteria to diagnose - Diagnosis of cancer: tissue exa mination o From biopsy: histologic diagnosis (colon bx) o From swab or ne edle aspiration: cytologic diagnosis (PAP o Use of special tools to det ermine cellular Immunological and histoche mical det ection of specific cell products (cytokeratin stain) Detection of molecular a bnorm alities (Her2, FISH) o How does the pathologist m ake a diagnosis o 1) Histologic criteria for malignancy: Loss of normal tissue architecture and organization Cellular abnormalities and too many cells piled up
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM HB taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 14 Molecular Profiling of Cancer - Review how...

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