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Lecture 15 Understanding Human Evolution

Lecture 15 Understanding Human Evolution - Describe...

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Describe evolutionary relationships of humans with other organisms Explain why diseases exist despite natural selection Describe the major transitions in human evolution Describe the current hypothesis for the origin of modern humans Describe the basic patterns and timing of major migrations of modern humans Explain flaws in the concept of “race” as defined in U.S. medicine Describe examples of genetic variation among modern humans Explain some effects of modern lifestyle on health and disease: the hygiene hypothesis, post-agricultural changes in human diet, the thrifty gene hypothesis Describe changes in human longevity and implications for the future of medicine Vocab: Hominin, hominid, Homo, Modern Humans, great apes, natural selection, neutral evolution, fitness, reproductive fitness, longevity, Holocene - Metazoans – humans - o The great apes include: (from closest relationship to use) Bonobo, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan - Theory: major diseases of a given species are likely to be related to (mal) adaptations during the recent evolutionary past of that species - Corollary: comparisons of disease incidence and susceptibility between humans and our closest evolutionary relatives should be useful - Striding bipedal gait – a uniquely human condition with biomedical consequences o Low back pains and strains o Spine deformity problems o Herniated inter-vertebral discs (“slipped discs”) o Varicose veins o Hernias o Hermorrhoids o Keen joint osteoarthritis o Obstetric difficulties (Narrow Pelvis) - Human vs Great Apt Differences o Duration of labor o Indication of pain during labor o Time of day for delivery o Disease is only linked to humans i.e. HIV and Alzheimer’s Disease - Hominins – o Ardi – Lucy—nutcracker – java man – peking man – hobbit – neandertals – US (our brains stopped growing) o Neanderthals are our closest extinct evolutionary cousins o Common ancestors of modern human arose in AFRICA and spread across the plant over the last 60-10,000 years ago Describe evolutionary relationships of humans with other organisms
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