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Unformatted text preview: Recognize that most cancers originate in tissues and cell types that undergo continuous regeneration Explain the importance of eliminating cancer stem cells for the success of therapeutic attempts to eliminate a cancerous tumor Explain why cancer cells almost always carry a large number of defects, some of which are cell autonomous and some of which are tissue microenvironment defects List several types of cell-autonomous defects and several types of tissue- microenvironment defects Explain how proto-oncogenes may be converted to oncogenes in a variety of ways including point mutations, chromosomal translocations, and gene amplifications Explain why many proto-oncogenes encode proteins of growth-factor- activated receptor-tyrosine-kinase signaling pathways Explain the action of an oncogene- targeted anticancer drug, such as imatinib (Gleevec) or trastuzumab (Herceptin) Discuss why defects in tumor suppressor genes are frequently found to be responsible for hereditary cancer syndromes such as Retinoblastoma Describe how apoptosis is normally a fail-safe mechanism to control proliferation, but is frequently circumvented by secondary cancer mutations Vocab : Oncogene, proto-oncogene, Tumor Suppressor, Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Metastasis Outline:- Cancers develop by an accumulation of mutations- Cancer cells evolve properties that give them a competitive advantage- Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are critical for tumorigenesis- An understanding of cancer cell biology opens the way to new treatments- Hallmarks of cancer: o Most if not all cancers have the following acquired characteristics Self-sufficiency in growth signals Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals Evasion of apoptosis Limitless replicative capacity Sustained angiogenesis Tissue invasion and metastatsis o Cancer cell characteristics are not necessarily acquired through identical mechanisms- Most cancer arise from somatic mutations o Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are NOT PASSED onto the children o Alterations can (but not always) cause cancer or other diseases. o This mutation is sometimes called acquired mutation referencing the fact that it is not the result of inheriting a mutation form a parent (only 5-10% of cancer is hereditary) o Germ cell mutation- Cancers develop by an accumulation of mutations o Never just one mutation to get a tumor- Cancers develop by an accumulation of mutations o o As the cell becomes more tumorigenic it will have more and more mutations Genetic instability challenge the genetic instability to push them toward (c) Recognize that most cancers originate in tissues and cell types that undergo continuous regeneration Explain the importance of eliminating cancer stem cells for the success of therapeutic attempts to eliminate a cancerous tumor Explain why cancer cells almost always carry a large number of...
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- Spring '11