Lecture_3_(Cancer_Etiology)

Lecture_3_(Cancer_Etiology) - Foundations Lecture 3 9-8-10...

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Foundations Lecture 3 9-8-10 (Week 1) Cancer Etiology Lecture Objective - Define cancer and the mechanisms that lead to its appearance in humans. Lecture Summary - Cancer arises from a diverse range of factors, ranging from genetic to environmental factors to virologic/bacterial, and while “curing” it is a nearly impossible task due to its heterogeneity, detecting it early through diagnostic techniques allow one to stop it before it progresses into a lethal disease. Introduction - Key: Uncontrolled proliferation o Ex: involvement with organs that have high levels of cell TO (ie: liver) - Benign vs. Malignant Benign Malignant Remains localized Will not spread to other sites Metastasize (sometimes) Can be surgically removed Can lead to death Patient will (likely) survive Key Terms Carcinoma - Malignancy of epithelial cells o Gut, squamous (skin), lung, bladder, breast, etc. Sarcoma - Malignancy of mesenchymal cells o Soft tissue, connective tissue, bone, etc. 1
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Foundations Lecture 3 9-8-10 (Week 1) Lymphoma & Leukemia - Malignancies of the cells of the immune system Cell Cycle - System regulating the division of cells Transform - Loss of the normal checks on the cell cycle, implies ability of cells to divide indefinitely Types of Spread Invasion - Localized spread of cancer Metastasis - Discontinuous spread of cancer to a new site (ie: prostate bone) Delving into it… What causes cancer? - Key question: “why aren’t we walking bags of cancer?” o In a nutshell: the cell cycle has “error checking” to prevent Causes 1. Inherited Defects (rare) 2. Acquired Pre-Neoplastic Conditions 3. External Factors a) Chemicals b) Radiation c) Viruses & bacteria - Key to note: non-lethal genetic damage lies at the heart of carcinogenesis o Allows proliferation of these “mistakes” o Had it been lethal, the cell would simply die and not be a problem (1) Inherited Predisposition to Cancer Heredity Inherited cancer syndromes - Inheritance of a single mutant gene autosomal dominant 2
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Foundations Lecture 3 9-8-10 (Week 1) - Examples: retinoblastoma, familial adenomatous polyposis Familial Cancer - No specific known gene inheritance is complex - Typical characteristics o Early age o Tumors in
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM HB taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Lecture_3_(Cancer_Etiology) - Foundations Lecture 3 9-8-10...

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