1._Dante_Alighieri_The_Divine_Comedy.pdf - THE DIVINE COMEDY OF DANTE ALIGHIERI THE DIVINE COMEDY OF DANTE ALIGHIERI Edited and Translated by ROBERT M

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Unformatted text preview: THE DIVINE COMEDY OF DANTE ALIGHIERI THE DIVINE COMEDY OF DANTE ALIGHIERI Edited and Translated by ROBERT M. DURLING Introduction and Notes by RONALD L. AND ROBERT MARTINEZ M. DURLING Illustrations by ROBERT TURNER Volume 1 INFERNO NEW OXFORD YORK OXFORD UNIVERSITY 1996 PRESS Oxford University Press Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bombay Calcutta Cape T own Dar cs Salaam Delhi Horence Hong Kong Istanhul Karachi Kuab Lumpur Madras .v1adriJ Melbourne Mexico City NairobI Paris Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Translation copyright © 1996 by Robert M. Durling Introduction and notes copyright © 1996 by Ronald L. Martinez and Robert M. Durling Illustrations copyright © 1996 by Robert Turner Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York. '-lew York 10016 Oxford is J registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of chis puhlicJtlOr) may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or trans-mirted, in Jny tonn or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dame Nigh;eri, 1265 1321. [Divina commedia. Engli<h & Italian] The divine comedy of Dante Alighieri / edited and translated by Robert M. Durling; introduction and note~, Ronald L. Martinez and Robert rvt. Durling; illustracions by Robert Turner. p. em. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v. 1. Inferno. ISB N 0-19-508740-2 I. Durling, Robert M. II. Title. PQ4315.D87 19% 851'.I-dc20 95-127-10 9876sn21 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper PREFACE A Note on the Text and Translation In this first volume of our projected edition and translation of the Divine Comedy, the text of the Inferno is edited on the basis of the critical edition by Giorgio Petrocchi, sponsored by the Societa Dantesca Italiana, La Commedia secondo i'antica vuigata. We have departed from Petrocchi's readings in a number of cases, however, which are discussed under the rubric "Textual Variants" (page 585), and we have somewhat lightened Petrocchi's excessively heavy punctuation and have treated quotations according to American norms. The translation is prose, as literal as possible, following as closely as practicable the syntax of the original; there is no padding, such as one finds in most verse translations. The closely literal style is a conscious effort to convey in part the nature of Dante's very peculiar Italian, notoriously craggy and difficult even for Italians. Dante is never bland: his vocabulary and syntax push at the limits of the language in virtually every line; there must be some tension, some strain, in any translation that respects the original. While we hope the translation reads well aloud, there is no effort to mirror Dante's sound effects-meaning and syntax are much more important for our purposes. Latin words and phrases are left untranslated and are explained in the notes; they add an important dimension. The translation begins a new paragraph at each new terzina; the numbers in the margins are those of the first Italian line of each terzina. This format continually reminds the reader that the original is in verse. It helps approximate the narrative and syntactic rhythm of the original. It calls attention to Dante's frequent, emphatic enjambments between terzinas (the translation keeps the syntax distributed among the terzinas as closely as possible). It is designed to direct the reader's attention over to the original, and we believe it facilitates reference to particular lines and words: the reader of the translation can always identifY the corresponding Italian, even finding the middle line of a terzina without difficulty. A Note on the Notes The notes are not a scholarly commentary, although they are fi those found in many current translations; they are designed for time reader of the poem. We have tried to strike a balance al v Preface interests that compete for inclusion: information essential for comprehension, often about historical events and intellectual history; clarification of obscure or difficult passages; and illumination of the complexity of the language, the allusiveness, the intellectual content, and the formal structures of thi, masterpiece oflate Gothic art. We have tried to give some idea of the tradition of commentary on the poem, now roughly 650 years old, and of current developments in Dante studies, many taking place on this side of the Atlantic. We have borrowed freely from earlier commentators and critics. Rather than take the readers' hands at every step and tell them exactly what to feel or think, we hope to present some of the materials with which they can build their own views of the poem. Although fairly extensive, the notes are subject to limitations of space. In countless cases, it simply is not possible to cite differing views or shades of opinion. Usually, when a matter has been the subject of dispute, we call attention to the fact and list in the Bibliography suggestions for further study; but for the most part, we state our own position, with some of its reasons, and pass over in silence the views that we do not accept, many of them recent and set forth with great learning and cogency by their authors, whose indulgence we entreat. Any other approach would have swelled the notes beyond reason; furthermore, we really do not think it would be appropriate, in a commentary meant for readers approaching the poem for the first time, to include the details of scholarly disputes. But of course your two annotators are human, and some of the details we have excluded from the notes themselves can be found in the "Additional Notes" at the end of the volume. Here each of us has taken the bit in his teeth on a few subjects dear to his scholarly heart. The titles of these short essays are self-explanatory, we believe; each carries an indication of the part of the poem it concerns or the place in the poem where the issues it discusses have emerged. Acknowledgments We have received generous help and encouragement from many friends and colleagues, and it is a pleasure to thank them. Robert McMahon and David Quint read portions of the manuscript at various stages of its evolution and made helpful suggestions. Ken Durling read the entire translation and the introduction; his criticisms were extremely helpful. Sarah Durling was a great help with the introduction. Richard Kay, Edw3rd Peters, and R. A. Shoaf read selected cantos, both translation and commentary, and Charles T. Davis listened to the entire translation on tape; vi Pre/ace we have adopted many of their suggestions. Ruggero Stefanini's counsel on textual matters was invaluable. Paul Alpers, Nicholas J. Perella, and Regina Psaki read the entire manuscript; we have adopted a large percentage of their suggestions. They saved us from a number of errors. Like those already mentioned, Margaret Brose, Rachel Jacoff, Victoria Kirkham, and Francesco Mazzoni have given us generous encouragement that has been important to us. Nancy Vine Durling has read the manuscript in all its versions; she has caught many mistakes, and her suggestions have been most useful. Mildred Durling, though her eyesight was failing, proofread the entire text of translation and notes and helped us avoid a significant number of errors. We thank Jean-Franyois and Sabine Vasseur of See au x (France) and Doug Clow of Minneapolis for the cordial hospitality that made possible prolonged meetings of the collaborators. An NEH fellowship for university teachers granted to Ronald L. Martinez for a Dante-related project (1993-1994) contributed significantly to this venture as well. Our greatest debt is to Albert Russell Ascoli, who repeatedly gave both the translation and notes extremely detailed and searching scrutiny. In both, he saved us from errors, recalled us to balance and fairness, and made so many useful suggestions that there is hardly a page that does not reflect his influence. He and our other friends are not to blame, of course, for the errors and shortcomings that may remain. Finally, the patience, forbearance, and active help of our wives, Nancy Vine Durling and Mary Therese Royal de Martinez, has been essential. In a very real sense, this book owes its existence to the extraordinary skill and care of Linda Robbins, Irene Pavitt, and Donna Ng of Oxford University Press; it is a pleasure to thank them. The text of Giorgio Petrocchi's edition of the Inferno is reprinted (with the qualifications noted above) with the kind permission of the Societa Dantesca ltaliana and of the present publisher, Casa Editrice Le Lettere, Florence. Translations of biblical passages are from the Douay version, except as noted; unless otherwise identified, all other translations in the notes are our own. Berkeley lvIinneapolis October 1995 R.M.D. R.L.M. vii CONTENTS Abbreviations) xvii Introduction) 3 INFERNO CANTO 1, 26 Notes to Canto 1, 34 CANTO 2,40 Notes to Canto 2, 48 CANTO 3,54 Notes to Canto 3, 62 CANTO 4,70 Notes to Canto 4, 80 CANTO 5,86 Notes to Canto 5, 94 CANTO 6, toO Notes to Canto 6, 108 CANTO 7,112 Notes to Canto 7, 120 CANTO 8,126 Notes to Canto 8, 134 CANTO 9,140 Notes to Canto 9, 148 CANTO 10, 154 Notes to Canto 10, 162 CANTO 11, 170 Notes to Canto 11, 178 ix Colltents CANTO 12,184 Notes to Canto 12, 192 CANTO 13, 198 Notes to Canto 13, 208 CANTO 14,218 Notes to Canto 14, 226 CANTO 1S,230 Notes to Canto 15, 238 CANTO 16, 246 Notes to Canto 16, 254 CANTO 17,260 Notes to Canto 17,268 CANTO 18,274 Notes to Canto 18, 282 CANTO 19,288 Notes to Canto 19, 296 CANTO 20,304 Notes to Canto 20, 312 CANTO 21, 318 Notes to Canto 21, 326 CANTO 22, 332 Notes to Canto 22, 342 CANTO 23, 346 Notes to Canto 23, 354 CANTO 24,362 Notes to Canto 24, 372 CANTO 25,380 Notes to Canto 25, 390 CANTO 26.398 Notes to Canto 26, 406 x Contents CANTO 27,416 Notes to Canto 27, 424 CANTO 28,432 Notes to Canto 28, 440 CANTO 29,450 Notes to Canto 29, 458 CANTO 30,464 Notes to Canto 30, 472 CANTO 31, 482 Notes to Canto 31, 490 CANTO 32, 498 Notes to Canto 32, 506 CANTO 33,514 Notes to Canco 33, 524 CANTO 34,534 Notes to Canto 34, 542 ADDITIONAL NOTES 1. Autobiography in the Divine Comedy (After Canto 2), 551 2. The Body Analogy, 1 (After Canto 11), 552 3. The Old Man of Crete (Canto 14), 555 4. Dante and Brunetto Latini (Canto 15), 557 5. Dante and Homosexuality (Canto 16), 559 6. Geryon's Spiral Flight (Canto 17), 560 7. Boniface's Church (Canto 19), 563 8. Dante and the Classical Soothsayers (After Canto 20), 564 0. Autobiography in Cantos 21-23, 567 10. Time and the Thief (Cantos 24-25), 568 11. Ulysses' Last Voyage (Canto 26), 571 12. The Poetry of Schism (Canto 28), 573 13. The Body Analogy, 2: The Metaphorics of Fraud (After Canto 30), 576 xi Contents 14. Dante's Political Giants (Canto 31), 577 15. Ugolino (Cantos 32-33), 578 16. Christ in Hell (After Canto 34), 580 Textual Variants, 585 Bibliography, 587 Index of Italian, Latin, and Other Words Discussed in the Notes, 611 Index if Passages Cited in the Notes, 614 Index if Proper Names il1 the Notes, 625 Il1dex if Proper Names il1 the Text and Translatiol1, 647 MAPS Italy, ca. 1300, xiii Romagna and Tuscany, ca. 1300, xiv The Celestial Sphere and the Zodiac, xv The Structure of Dante's Hell, xvi FIGURES 1. Fortune and her wheel (Canto 7), 123 2. The Resurrection of the dead (Canto 10), 164 3. The baptismal font in the Pisa Baptistery (Canto 19), 296 4. A medieval devil (Canto 21), 327 5. A fist making the "fig" (Canto 25), 390 6. A lute, face down (Canto 30), 474 7. The walls of Montereggione (Canto 31), 491 8. The relative positions of Gibraltar, Jerusalem, the Ganges, and Purgatory (Canto 34), 543 xii 5 ~ v ....t,. •. . . o o 50 150 miles 100 I 100 200 kilometers Italy, ca. 1300. XIII o 50 ,~ 40 () o " 1> Gubl)lo. .-;;.. """ ~ PEHUGIA • Assisl M B • Tod! Orvlcto Logo dl Romagna and Tuscany, ca. 1300, /JOI"g~ H f\. kilometers I 80 N u 5 'Y' Aries '0 Taurus I Gemini $ Cancer cO. Leo 1W Virgo A J ~ =:: Libra ~ 111J Scorpio / Sagittarius \IS = Capricorn .J ~ ~ ~ J Aquarius )( Pisces (Y -vel ~ ~ apparant annual motion of slln -.c . ..... ,: apparant daily revolution of celestial sphere The Celestial Sphere and the Zodiac. xv The Structure of Dante's Hell. XV! ABBREVIATIONS Acts The Acts of the Apostles Aen. Vergil, Aeneid Apoc. The Apocalypse of Saint John Commentarii Macrobius, Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis Consolation Boethius, Philosophiae Consolatio Cor. Saint Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians Dan. Daniel Deut. Deuteronomy Eccles. Ecclesiastes Ecclus. Ecclesiasticus E.D. Enciclopedia dantesca Eph. Saint Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians Ex. Exodus Ezek. Ezekiel Gal. Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians Gen. Genesis Inf Is. Inferno Isaiah Jer. Jeremiah John Luke The Gospel According to Saint John Matt. The Gospel According to Saint Matthew Met. Par. Ovid, Metamorphoses Peter Saint Peter's Epistles The Gospel According to Saint Luke Paradiso P. L. Patrologia Latina Provo The Book of Proverbs Purg. Purgatorio Romans Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans Servius Servii grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii Summa theol. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae Theb. Statius, Thebaid XVII Abbreviations Thess. Saint Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians Wisdom The Wisdom of Solomon Authors' names not followed by dates (e.g., Singleton) refer to commentaries that are listed in the Bibliography under "Commentaries on the Divine Comedy"; authors' names followed by dates (e.g., Singleton 1966) refer to items listed in the Bibliography under "Modern Works." Primary sources are for the most part cited by author and abbreviated title; references are to edirions listed under "Works by Dante" and "Primary Texts." xviii THE DIVINE COMEDY OF DANTE ALIGHIERI INTRODUCTION T he seventh centennial of Dante's death will take place in September 2021, at this writing little more than a quarter century in the future. After seven centuries his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy, continues to engage and fascinate readers all over the world, both those approaching it for the first time and those who know it intimately, from students and amateurs to professional scholars, in spite of the fact that the culture from which it springs is so distant and so different from our own. As even those who have not read the poem know, it recounts the journey of its protagonist (the poet himself) through the three realms of the medieval Catholic Otherworld: Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. On this basic narrative thread of a complete tour of the cosmos and the moral universe that it embodies, with its great central theme of the education of the protagonist, is strung a series of remarkably vivid encounters with the inhabitants of the three realms. Under the guidance first of the soul of the poet Vergil, * then of his beloved Beatrice, who, he tells us in the Vita nuova, had died at the age of twenty-four, the protagonist meets the souls of those who have determined the nature of European history. Dante's ultimate subject might be described as the ways the great cosmic and historical drama of God's creation of the world, man's fall, and humanity's redemption from sin is visible in history and in his own personal experience; his experience is always conceived as firmly located in place (Florence and the Italy of his day) and time (the late thirteenth century). For Dante, as for most medieval thinkers, the fate of the individual is inextricably bound up with that of society as a whole, but the great principles are always seen in terms of the actions and words of concretely represented individuals, as often as not contemporaries of the poet, usually those prominent in political life. More than any other major European poem, the Comedy is a detailed commentary on the political, economic, and social developments of its author's times. Many of the historical events and individuals so important in Dante's experience are all but forgotten today, except among medieval historians (and, of course, students of the Comedy). But Dante's age was in fact a major turning point in European history, fraught with developments and problems whose results are still with us today, albeit in very different * Modern scholarship has established that Vergilius is the correct spelling of Vergil's name; Dante follows the traditional medieval spelling in writing Virgilio. We shall maintain the distinction, using Vergil to refer to the historical Vergil, and Virgil to refer to the character in Dante's poem. 3 IlIlrod!Juioll (onn: they include early capitalism, already revealing its tendency to engulf cities ;ll1d local interests in the netv\'ork of an international economy, closely associated with the development of international finance, in which Dante's city, Florence, was the ackno\vledged leader; the menacing rise of the nation-state, still in the form of feudal monarchy but increasingly centralized, ruthless, and violent, with the accompanying collapse of medieval internationalism; and the increasing involvement of the Christian Church in the economic and political struggles of the day, with the resultant corruption and compromise of its spiritual mission, One of the reasons for the Comedy's enduring vitality is that Dante sa\\' so deeply into the nature of these problems. He also acknowledged very clearly that it was increasingly difficult to discern a providential plan, though he continued to believe there must be one. The terms of his analysis and of his imagined remedies are medieval, of course, which means theological, moralistic, and metaphysical, as opposed to structural, economic, or sociological in any modern sense. His grasp of the historic urgency of contemporary events, hovvever, has largely been vindicated, and we can still learn from his powerful analysis-structural and sociological in its own way-of the nature of greed-motivated ii-aud, which Dante identified as a major social problem. And, like the question of the direction history is taking, the great mora] and spiritual issues remain, though few today would wish to inhabit the cosmos Dante supposed was the theater of human action or the society he wished to see established. We devote the bulk of this introduction to providing, in condensed and abbreviated fonn, some of the historical and biographical background essential to understanding the poem; much of this material is also discussed in the notes to the individual cantos. A brief concluding section discusses the form of the Comedy. Dante's Times. Life. and Works Dante Alighieri was born in Florence in 1265, probably in late May, to Bella and Alighiero degli Alighieri. His mother, perhaps of the prominent Abati family, died while Dante vvas still a boy. His father was a modest moneylender and speculator in land, descended from an old but muc11 declined noble family; he died when Dante was about eighteen. At the time of Dante's birth, Florence, though already an important center of trade and banking, was scarcely more than a town of about 45,000, of whom only several thousand-males \vho \vere over thirty, owned property, and were related to pO\\'erful families-were eligible to vote and hold public office. By 1301, the date of the great disaster of Dante's life, his going into exile, Florence was one of the largest and most important 4 Introduction cities in Europe, equal in size and importance to Paris, with a population of over 100,000 and financial and commercial interests that extended as far as England and Constantinople and even beyond. Like other independent city-states, Florence had always been deeply implicated in Ttalian and European politics, especially the great struggle between the emperors and the popes, and its phenomenal expansion during Dante's lifetime made its involvement ever deeper. The increasing commercialization of Florentine life and the corruption of the papacy s...
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