MIDTERM.docx - ITM 301 MIDTERM Lecture 1 Network Models-Topology\u2014How parts of a whole work together-Physical topology\u2014Mostly applies to hardware and

MIDTERM.docx - ITM 301 MIDTERM Lecture 1 Network...

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ITM 301 MIDTERM Lecture 1 Network Models - Topology —How parts of a whole work together - Physical topology —Mostly applies to hardware and describes how computers, other devices, and cables fir together to form the physical network - Logical topology —Has to do with software and describes how access to the network is controlled How users and programs initially gain access to the network - Network operating system (N O S)— Controls access to the entire network Required by client-server models Peer-to-Peer Network Model -Peer-to-peer (P 2 P) network model —The O S of each computer on the network is responsible for controlling access to its resources No centralized control -Computers, called nodes or hosts, form a logical group of computers and users May share resources May prevent access to resources -Advantages Simple configuration Less expensive (compared to other network models) -Disadvantages Not scalable Not necessarily secure Not practical for large installations Client-Server Network Model -Resources are managed by the network operating system (N O S) via a centralized directory d- database - Windows domain —A logical group of computers that a Windows Server can control - Active Directory (A D) —The centralized directory database that contains user account information and security for the entire group of computers -A user can sign on to the network from any computer on the network and gain access to the resources that A D allows -This process is managed by Active Directory Domain Services (A D D S)
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ITM 301 MIDTERM -Client A computer making a request from another -Clients don’t share their resources directly with each other Access is controlled by entries in the centralized domain database -Client computers access resources on another computer by way of the servers controlling the domain database -The N O S is responsible for the following activities: Manages client data, resources Ensures authorized user access Controls user file access Restricts user network access Dictates computer communication rules Supplies application to clients -Server examples Windows Server 2016, Ubuntu Server, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux -Servers that have a N O S installed require: More memory, processing, and storage capacity Equipped with special hardware o Provides network management functions -Advantages relative to peer-to-peer networks User credential assigned from one place Multiple shared resource access centrally controlled Central problem monitoring, diagnostics, and correction capabilities More scalable Client-Server Applications - Network services —The resources a network makes available to its users Includes applications and the data provided by these applications - In client-server applications A client computer requests data or a service from a second computer, called the server -Protocols Methods and rules for communication between networked devices -Two primary protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) IP (Internet Protocol) TCP/IP suite of protocols is used by OSs for communication on a network
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