110 C H A P T E R 5 Intellectual Disability and Developmental Disorders LEARNED OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 5.1. Describe the key features of intellectual disability (ID) and the way in which children with this condition can vary in terms of their adaptive functioning. Differentiate ID from global developmental delay (GDD). List and provide examples of challenging behaviors shown by some children with developmental disabilities. 5.2. Distinguish between organic and cultural–familial ID. Explain how genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors can lead to developmental disabilities in children. 5.3. Identify evidence-based techniques to prevent and treat developmental disabilities. Apply learning theory to reduce challenging behaviors in youths with developmental disabilities. O nce there was a craftsman who used all his skill and effort to create a wonderful new pot. The pot was made of clay, crafted by his weathered hands, and baked into a beautiful form. The man glazed and decorated the pot, using colors and designs that were as unique as they were beautiful. When it was finished, the man carried the pot to a nearby well to fetch some water for his home. To his surprise, he discovered the pot had developed a small crack from the kiln, which caused water to leak from the bottom. At first, the crack was small, but over time it became larger and more noticeable. One day, the man’s friend said, “That pot has a crack. By the time you get home, you’ve lost half of your water. Why don’t you throw it away and get a new one?” The man paused, turned to his friend, and replied, “You don’t understand. Yes, it’s true that this pot leaks more and more every day. But every day it also waters more and more flowers on the path from the well to my home.” Sure enough, along the path had sprung countless wildflowers of all varieties, while in other areas, the land was barren. His friend simply nodded in approval (see Image 5.1). 1 The story of the broken pot illustrates the dignity and value of every person. Each person has unique gifts and tal- ents, although sometimes they are hard to recognize. When studying children with developmental disabilities, it’s easy to focus on limitations and lose sight of the children themselves. Many of these youths face significant challenges perform- ing everyday activities like bathing and dressing. Others have difficulty with communication and language. Still others struggle in school or exhibit challenging behaviors in social settings. Too often, these problems overshadow their abilities. Regardless of his or her disability, disorder, or diagnosis, each of these children has intrinsic worth. A challenge facing parents, teachers, and all people who interact with these youths is to not lose sight of the child when we focus on 1 Adapted from a story by Kevin Kling.
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- Fall '16
- T. Keneni
- Intelligence quotient, SAGE Publications, Developmental disability, Mental retardation