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Unformatted text preview: Test 4 What an exciting unit regarding American personal liberties. Remember we fought the American Revolution with the intention to establish liberty and later equality for Americans. The 3rd Article, which establishes the Judicial Branch plays a pivotal role in the process of American rights, as do other lower courts in the US. The Bill of Rights is examined and how the individual freedoms actually compete with each other. From there we discuss American Civil Rights and the expansion of them. The Supreme Court and the Judiciary establishes the framework for these rights to be maintained under the Constitution. Unit 4 includes Chapters 5, 6, and 16--so much for sequence! We will begin with the framework in which citizens take their case to the highest court in the land, the Supreme Court of US. The Judicial Branch is found in Article 3 and chapter 16. Then,our rights and liberties explained in chapters are 5 and 6. This is really the best for last! CHAPTER 16 The Judiciary OVERVIEW An independent judiciary with the power of judicial reviewthe power to decide the constitutionality of acts of Congress, the executive branch, and state governmentscan be a potent political force. The judicial branch of the United States government has developed its power from the earliest days of the nation, when Marshall and Taney put the Supreme Court at the center of the most important issues of the time. From 1787 to 1865, the Supreme Court focused on the establishment of national supremacy. From 1865 to 1937, it struggled with defining the scope of the governments power over the economy. In the present era, it has deliberated about personal liberties. It became easier for citizens and groups to gain access to the federal courts in the mid- to late twentieth century. This is the result of judges willingness to consider class action suits and amicus curiae briefs and to allow fee shifting. The lobbying efforts of interest groups also had a powerful effect. At the same time, the scope of the courts political influence has increasingly widened as various groups and interests have acquired access to the courts, as the judges have developed a more activist stance, and as Congress has passed more laws containing vague or equivocal language. Still, the Supreme Court controls its own workload and grants certiorari to a very small percentage of appellate cases. As a result, although the Supreme Court is the pinnacle of the federal judiciary, most decisions are made by the twelve circuit courts of appeals and the ninety-four federal district courts....
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