Asking the right questions ch 12

Asking the right questions ch 12 - WHAT SIGNIFICANT...

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Unformatted text preview: WHAT SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION ls OMITTED? How compelling are the ioilowing advertisements? Try Happyme, the number one doctor prescribed treatment for depression. See Kingdom oth’rwm. tile best action film of the yeari The purpose of the advertisements is, of course, to persuade you to buy more of the. designated product and to see the designated movie. Even before your critical—thinking skills developed to their current Eevei, you knew that such advertisements teil less than the Whole truth. For example, if the Happynie Company gives a bigger discount to psychiatrists than do other pharmaceutical companies, provides psychiatrists with greater numbers of free samples, or pro- vides cruises for psychiatrists who use their product, you are unfilter to see this information included in the ad. You Wiil not that information, but it is quite reievzint to your decision about what to take for your depression. While critical thinkers are seeking the strength of autonomy, they cannot do so if they are making decisions on the basis of highly limited information. Alniost :Iny conclusion or prodtict has some positive characteristics. Those who have an interest in telling us only the information they want us to know will tell us ail of these positive characteristics in great and Vivid detail. But they will hide the negative aspects of their conclusions. Thus, actual autonomy requires our persistent searching for what is being hidden, either accidentally or on purpose. £67 2 ) y l _) i 368 Chapter 12 By asking questions learned in orcvious cl'iaptzers, such as those €“f3i’2t‘f‘l‘3lflg ambiguity, assumptions, and evideru‘e, you will detect much ll]]f,)t"3i‘l2illt missing in— brmation. This chapter tries to sc'hsitize you even more to the lf11}’3(.}]"[£tl](.i(:t of what is not said and to sew: as an important reminder that we react. to 211] incomplem picture oi‘an argument when we evaluate only the expit'nét parts. We thus devote this chapter to an t.‘X.l.I‘GIHCl‘_S’ importh additional (gumtiou you 11.1131 :Isek tohjmlge the quality of reasoning: X’s-"hat significant informaticm is omitted? (J-r‘itiml Question: What significant ittforma-timt is omitted? The Benefits of Detecting Omitted information You should remember that almost any infbrmation that you encomuer has. a purpose. In other words, its organizatioo was selected and organized by some- one who hoped that it would affect your thinking in some way. l-{e11t:e, your task is to decide whether you wish to be an instrument of the chosen purpose. Often that purpose is: to persuade you. Advertisets.i teachers, p<i:liti€i;ms, authors, speakers, and parents all orguv nize inflirmation to shape your decisions. It is a natural and highly predictable desire on their part. Thus, those trying to persuade you will almost always tr}; to present their position in the strongest possible light, So when you find what: you believe to be. persuasive reasons—«those gold nuggets for which you are prospecting—“it’s wise to hesitate and to think about what the author may not I have told you. something that your critical. questioning has not yet revealed. By slyltfimflf omitted silt/armation, We. 111621.11 information that would affect . whether you should be influenced by a speaker’s or writer’s argumetits, that is, information that shapes the motoring? interspersed throughout the. chapter will he cxmnples of" reasoning that is not. very convincing, not because of‘wlm: is said but l'wc‘auxc of what is omitted. Study the exzunples; curclilll}? and notice how it} each case the failure to look {or omiueti lulormzuiou would have resulted in your nuing a premature and potentially errt‘me:msjuclgmcut. The Certainty of Incomplete Reasoning Eucomgilcte {mooning ix im‘x.‘it2-1l.>ic for 9("‘\’t?i‘}§l 1°("Z§.‘§€32'3>€. First. there hi the limi— tation iiupoxtetl in; tune and Si);i{‘t“. Arguments are llti‘tfinplt‘ti‘ hcmuec {‘oua— nmniczztor; do not have forever to organize {ltt‘ilL our (to their $1831" imlimitesi igpzsee or lime. £3? :1. loch to tit'i-ixi-‘u! il‘n‘is“ reasons. What ‘iigmifirazm informai'éon ls Elmilfecl? “3‘3 Srtrimzl. must. of. us Ema-'1" 2i *(‘viirs‘ ifimimd. 2-3I.€<‘E3€.i0r! span: Wt“ get: floral who” mcsssggcs too long. Eli-us, minim:Monitors oft-m {vol :1 uocri so gm: tin-fir ours sz'ifgr arross quirkig :M’ivoi'iismismut; imii oriimrizils relic“, {with {how li‘irl‘m‘s. For s‘XEEi'ii§L‘£l(:, Q‘f,iélij)l“iili$ ow limiiori to a s-gwril'ir :zziz'nlim- rjf'lwg'gdg mu”; :liz? zix‘guumm miss; Emil} he. iziiw’esfiog and rmlw :Eics' author’s poim. Editorial missus, there fore, (Tilgiigf’ iii: Emmy i-Kll-Rlfifv'il'ig omissions "Elfiorisiri'u commeimum‘s giro Haiku?" ous {or making highly rtiiuiplécatycl issues sound as if ti‘icy are simple. "i‘hey haw wry liflk‘ time: to provii‘lo the (legri'c ol’accru‘ult‘ i11li>if§1§1§i<>t1 il123{.}‘(3i1 wiil l'ltf‘t’fi. to form :1 reasonable rm‘it'lusi.or§. So our mimis Rood Lo do a lot oft-Kira work in fill in {he mung- gaps in @221? {hey have to say is: Home siiuiuioos A third unison for {he incviuiliiliiy of missing inlorzziaiion is $1121! the knowledge possessed by rho person making the zu'gumcof wilE always §)(" inronb plate. A fourah mason wily information may in: omiiitocl is bit muse, ofau outright :iticmpt {o (Etiéitiix‘té. :‘kdvertisors know they are omittirég Roy bits ofinlormariou. ll‘ {hey were to describe all the (:lien'iicals or Cheap corripouent parts Limt go into sheir prociucts, you would lit: less likely to buy them. Expefls in over}; field cow sriously omit ii'iformziiirm when opon disclosure. would weaken the persuasive u... T M. a 3 (Effect on hair Z‘ii’v'iCC. Such omissions m“? [onion any fthoso iryiog‘ to ;.1dvise you soc: you as a “sp(mgo." A rims] impormn: reason why omitted information is so prevalent is that. {ho values, beiiefs, and attitudes of those flying to advise or persuade you are fre— ' quench:{Eifiérerirfmmyours. You (rs'n'oiipécz', [E'éréforo {fiat tiiéir réz'iSiouiug Will H be guided by different assumptions from those you would have brought to the some question. Critical thinkers value curiosily and reasonabiei’iess; those work- ing to persuade you often want to extinguish your curiosity and :0 encourage you to rely on unreasonable cmoéonai responses to shape your choices. A {auricular perspective is liho a pair of biindczs on a homo. The blinders improw the ieodeocy of tho horse so focus or: what is (limctly in from ofit. Yen 212'; individuals perspective, like blinders on a horse P1‘6V61iiBti’lfiEp6rfiOfi from noting remain informaiion (in: would be impormut to those who reason from a (ligament f1 amt of z'eérreuco. lfn loss 3-1 nu" perspective is irloutiral to film: of ihc person trying {0 persuado you, iri‘ipoz‘tam omissions of iiziformatiou are to be expeczed. Let’s rev-“low Omiéted information is inevitable for at least five reasons 1. limo and space limitations; 2. limited attention span; inadequacies in human knowledge; 4. (loreptiou; and 5. existonce ofdifforeut pei'spoctéves. g Clues fer Finding Caramel“: Kinds g _ «0f Signifigant infarmatien é E E ' § 2‘ Gamma; commrargtments ; ,E a. Kfiiat masams Wfiiiié sameam: who disagreg’s afi'irr? E E b: Ari: {by}? researgh s-{mikfig aha: (finiz‘adia the Suzéifis presemmd? E i C. them misfifig exam??ng magimamigia (3-2“ amaézagies Lbs} suppzm g flu“ mm“ side {TE 53% argumétm? I é % , that-‘id-emify-Omitted infarma‘fian' gran-fire: flow Cofivinwd that res-awning will necessarily be incamplete, you ,3 ESKF‘Whét am-‘I-suppqs‘ed was)?” Wei}; ini-tiiaiiy you haw to remind you'r- gt 'i'eigardless 'ef-hcw attractive flue reasans supportingh particular dais? Ivar-opinion may Seem at. fife“ gum-fire; it’s 3366659222? t9 anoiheir lcmkén iéfifitiibfémifled information; : 4 r: - : -= - How do ymi searchand what, can‘you' expect'm- find? You ask qu'estiejns _>}ieip'-de¥:idéxwhat additiénalinformatien ycau' neéd, and then ask questions ,3 fagsggj.»th_af. ‘ ;.; ._; ., ’ :.. ; .. ,. ._: v N ~I-Sn’t-2itc Silk-to ask questions of an'auihor who? cannot answer? Not at all! (Eithofig‘kdfiééfifi‘itérwon‘itflfliévsreziréyouf Quésfions, asking him has positive resultg; Fi%st;‘yau 11:13}? be-abié t6 suiipiy" missing informatibn because of What you fiffififiy-iknuwgz,8€whd,z 'séamhing 'fOF>'ZGm’iflEd information in :parsuasive'wfiting gives --ggmd_-’pra§ficgfér'wfiegymg- are able _to tsearfih 'foriomittfied infarmatigfi I afacwtbié‘gte --with»2i teachef 0r afi-yone 6156 Whflis (Eryirtg' to per‘Suade‘you cat-"ally. Even mere '-'imp0rtami}g1-Searcl’1ing-f0r missing iiflfarmation-prévents - you from 'maki‘figmplydfir :mihd'ltaotsfcfinxfiy- asking Suéh ‘ques'iibns of fifit-ien‘ "materiziig you a?é¢emindingy0urs¢if $113: the infer-{nation pmvided is incompifite and that Whatéver ficncEHSiGn-‘you reach 011 {he basis of incomplesfi information wilt ncéa'ssariiyibéwéry {ehmtivei - «i . " I ' ' " ' I "‘Théi‘é :are‘ima-ézy itiifferéntkindxbf questions you can-115a to identify-wie— vant'bmitwdiinfirmédon:Somequé'sti'om you haveialmadg'l'earned i0 ask'wiii highiightimpermfii’emimedSinfmmafion. "Fm exam-93$; askingrritical question‘g about ambiguitfiévfiiemfie=df5mddence, and the: qualityzbf assumptions ustxail'}: idgnfifiies'mfie’vani Gmi£t€d‘info-rmafion; ‘ ' ' -' 'i ’1 In addifian; {‘0‘ hel'p_-}’e§'a'd€;éxfiiin€ romiitEefiriaform'ation-{ha-t might gfi DVEflOQkéd-b? <3thisr‘t'r‘ifififiizffieéfiahis; we providé ymi'baiow wish a fist of some mipeflam-zkmafisrafcmi-fiefi ifl‘fbfinat’ioa' had mme'émmpies- of questions; ta heap-a'étecéi Eh'em‘ ‘ ‘ ' ' Wise: Significani lnf’t'rtrnzttitm is (knitted? l'fl Miseiaig definititms a. lésm $§-é'§i.i§€'l {he (zigzauti‘iitx alif'f'es' ii lust lt‘E‘Tlifs u‘t‘z‘e‘ rteiirmi fig; 193115‘1'V‘yfiyg} 3. Mittsing value preferences 0! perspectives at ll'mtiti {'Eillezifiit: values : t'irztte :1 (lillbz‘cut 2Z§§,3§)¥'T)&lt‘ii in this Maze? 5. “ix-at A:';;'titttcttt:§ wéfiliifi iluw {mm t’ztlaxea {iiiit‘fli‘fii [tum titanic." of" the <;.:';ct;kt~:' or WE‘ilt‘i'i‘ it. Origins of “fame” referred it; it: the argument :1. “113.1. is; the main) for the "facts?" 3}. he the [Elam-ti i'iiiima stit'};.3ntteti luv (:‘t'tttag'tt‘tetn E‘t’SE‘Fti't‘il 02' by [Cilitl'frit’ .5(§lli‘('t“f§? 5. Details 0f procedures used for gathering facts a. Haw mam}- pt’npic cmnplcied the (pies'tir'mnuirc? b. How wute the survey t.;t:(:::£§t>t]s wortieil? C. Dlti E'Q’Kpflndfi‘llfs have z-trttpie uppot'tuttity to provide :t]3$WCI“S (iii-Ebrem. : {mm [lime repeated by tile person itsiatg the responses? l 6‘ Alternative techniques for gathering or organizing the evidence 3t. flute might. the tesultfi {mm mi imervicw stud}; (iififl‘ fmm written qttestiortmire results? E I}. Would a taberzttory experiment have created 12161}? reliable and infor— § mative testing? 5 7. Missing'or incomplete'fi'gures, graphs, tables, of tiata a. Vlkmld the data louk different it it inc'iuded evidence {mm earlier 02‘ i later years? I). Has the author “stretched” the figure to make the differences tool; g larger? 8. _Omitted effects, both positive and negative, and both shart- and E long—term, of what is advocated and what is oppesed ; a. Has the argument left out impart-ant pesitive or negative mnse~ quences oft: proposcti action? g h. De need to knew the impact of the action or: any of the following areas: political. social, ewncmzir, biological, spiritual. health, at envi- ron m cas‘itttl?‘ i E 9. Can-text of quotes and testimonials j 3. Has :1 quote or Lestimoniai been taken out of'comexl? 1). Would 2.1. different context. have Stimulated divergent respofises? a E0. Benefits accruing to the author from convincing others to follow 9 her acivice F! a. Will die altfhmr benefit fit’tanciaily if we attiopt her pmpused policy? j b. Dues the atltltefs farce? depend in some manner on 2;. particular (.‘I'mclusitm? l ___.M m. w 172 Chapter 32 Being aware of these specific types should help you a ioi‘ in iocating relevant omitted inftn‘imrion. Because there ace so many kinds of important. omiited information, however, you should aiwax ask yourself the general qnestion, “Has the speaker or writer left out an}: other information that] need to know before. ljudge the quaiity of his reasoning?" Let‘s examine some arguments that have omitted some of the types of informationjest listed and watch how each omission might cause us to form a faulty conclusion. Oniy by asking that omitted information be supplied in each could you avoid this danger. Initially, Eet’s look at an advertising ..cla_ini. . thout brand facial cieanser’s commerciais claim that the cleanser removes 95 percent of deepdown dirt and oil, helping to fight ui'isigiitly blemishes. Shouid we all run out and buy Zitont facial cleanser? Waitxjust a minute! Among many omissions, the advertisement fails to include any of the following pieces of information: (a) what percentage ol'deep—down dirt and oii other facial cleansers remove; maybe they remove 99 percent ofdirt and oil; (b) amount of dirt and-oil removed by washing with soap alone; it might be possible that faces can be cleaned adequatciy with noi‘mai soap; (c) potential negative con-sequences of using this specific product; it is possible that some of the ingredients might cause excessive dryness or pose cancer risks; (cl) other sources of blemishes; perhaps dirt and oil are not the highest concerns when washing one’s face; (e) how much dirt and oil is necessary to cause blemishes; maybe five percent will still cause a significant number of blemishes; and {f} odier advantages or disadvantages of the facial cleanser, such as smell, price, and length of effective action. The advertiser has omitted much significant data that you would need if you to buy wisely. Do you see how advertising phrases iike “4 out of 5 doctors “all natural,” “fat free,” “low in carbs,” “good for your heart,” “number I leading brand,” “ADA. approved,” and “no added preservatives" may aiE be accurate but misleading because of omitted infbrmation? It’s pretty (moons that advertising omits much relevant inft'n‘mation. Let’s now take a Iook at a more coinplicaied reasoning exampie. Read the following excerpt and ask yourselfth has been omitted, referring to our lisi for clues to yoin“ search. A greai was? to keep a buzz going for Eonger is in mix energy drinks will: alcohol. The energy imni the drink allows you to part}! longer as the alcohol does no? affect you mach as il would without the energy drink. was, the. added sown» iants in the energy (irile keep you alest. picrvei'iting son from becmiaing impaii’ed due to alcohol i‘.:.‘n'i.soEmotion. gliirlié‘fis have shown that people mixing ezici‘gy What Sig‘rtif‘mflnt ltif‘emiation ha (Emitter? WE think gm gflfifi’ii}! ram parry parent longer (115.31}. cncrgfi drinks pmrt‘rtt'r lta‘ztg‘i “Wm as W“ hat"? alarm; that people who mix alcohol and energy drinks t't."§')(3i‘l T1”: txrrccnt. lhwcr hangowrs: tlmti drinking nimhoi filth-3f“. causes, whiie maiz'zruinitzg ,1 but}: fill gran-mt longer. Ftt§"{llt"t’t’t}01'¢. Super Stim, a lmclittg brtmti ol'mnirgrt‘ drink. docs; not i‘nctitir-sn Mtg-thing 32mm zzcgutiw litmlti; tonmqttcnccis on i'i'ltflt‘ Wtil‘fiiét‘ i’r‘mti mixing tlwir think with alcohol. {.Llcttrl}; [lme is; mach gong? i-mtl no harm in mixing mmrgy drinks; rand alcohol. ' l ' ill-"hat. important information (to iron need to know before you can decide it'hcthor mix.ng «norm drinks and alcohol is l‘tt-flpfltl and safe? Let us suggest some @Lttffitlfjtlfi. What conmton cotmtomrgumcms or cottntemxamplcs might (ltKIEOE‘S or other fipcciai-lsts use to refine this reasoning? We can imagine countemrgw nit-mtg l'iighlighting that hangovers are a result of t’lchytl 'ation, and that, calf» faint-3, commonly found in large quantities in energy drinks, is a diuretic, also causing dehydration. Also, the stimulants will keep people alert, but do not prevent impairment, giving pcopic a false sense of being more sober than they really are. What are possible health risks associated with mixing stimulants and deprcssants? IE. is important to know that researchch at Ball State Ui'livcrsitv 4 have recently tic-leased statements saying the mixing of stimulants and depres- sant; incncrgy. drinks- ;mtl alcohol restrict-rival}? can cause cardiopuittto‘nary' and cardiovascular failures. What counts as an “energy think?” What value assumptions does the argument contain that lead to an advocating of mixing energy drinks anti alcohol? What is the origin of the. facts alluded to in the argument? How does the author know that pcoplc can party percent longer, and people experience TVS-percent lcwcr hangovers? how confident can we be of the survey reports of fcwcr hangtwers? We know nothing about the rcscarch cited. So we cannotjut’lgc the quality of the statistics provided. For example, it; it M2ng to you to know that in numerous recent studies, researchers have demonstrated how mixing encrgy drinks can lead to increased hcarl and liver problems? It is also important to realize that there it little spccific evidence on whcthcr energy drinks are helpful or harmful, on their own, to onc’s health. We would ccrtalniy want to examine these other sttztliest as well as tho oncs cited in the passage, to better cval‘uf are all of the evidence available rcgartling the mixing of energy drinks and alcohol. _ I Would other rcsctirch methods give us 11 different View of the safcty of mixing energy drinks and alcoholic beverages? Would survey data resultg www.m.-.--m,..“u,” M A U. Wail Chapter 12 differ from tests performed in a laboratory on the interactions ofchemicals in energy drinks and alcohol? Vl-‘oulcl a donhlohlind study giving people various drinks involving mixes of alcohol, stimulants, or a placebo Eiquitl accurately provide statistics on risks from mixing energy drinks and alcohol? We also know nothing about the author. it is relevant to finil out any pos- sible associations the author has with energy drink companies or providers of alcohol as these connections might bias the research. Also, if the author'is a doctor unattached to either energy drink or alcohol companies, this informa— tion might lend credibility to the author‘s claims. The author has presontcd us with a very incomplch picture; Unless-yoncomplete the pie-ture,-your decision about the safety of mixing energy drinks and alcohol will be very uninformed. The Importance of the Negative View There is one type. of omitted information that we believe is so important to identify and so often overlooked that we want to specifically highlight it for you: the patmiiaf negative qum of actions being advocatecl, such as the use of a new medication, the building of 3 large new school, or a proposed [3.x cut. We stress the negative effects here because usually proposals for such aetion come into existence in the context of hackers’ heralding their benefits, such as greater reduction of a certain medical problem, better appearance, more leisure, more educational opportunities, increased length of life, and more and/'or improved commodities However, because most actions have such widespread- positive god negative impacts, we need to ask: - Which segments of society do not benefit from a proposed action? Who loses? ‘A’hai do the lOsers have to say about it? - How does the proposed acticm affect the (listribotion of power? - Does the action influence the extent. of democracy in our society? ' How does a garlicular action affect how we view the worh‘i: ‘What we think! how we think, and what we know and can know? ' Who: are the union’s effects on our health? * How does the action influence our relntimtships with one another? Wiil’i tho natural cnvimmnent? '3 "‘e—Vilé the action loo-c 2: Sims} conanlztiiw ionmct? l g; i E. l 5 What $§§gzt§hcant [tittirmzai'ét‘m Es (Jmittt‘té? TIE malt cal :lww (gaitiwtiwst‘e, 2w ailttziw z'tlm mint m- ;Hk, “mint an“ :lw th‘ilafil'liidl fs'mg-Ei'ififi .Vfif’it'vf’igi’i't’ {Eff‘Wgé (“it lllt‘ ztc't.§<2it;“ la} liltifilt'éttt‘ thin itfitiftihfi'xs alltfiking than: mm;[UHuttnitlaii:m ("gttwtintzx Elam :§_’fi{"t'fi' tighfi'i 2hr.- ltéllfé'fiiltlg (gtéi'fi‘iiéflll What A}? 5mm {wimihlt' tmgz-‘zliw c'll't‘t'ts m5 imiltlétig z: lgté'gt’ MW; Wham}? lliil mt: think of the: Rillik'wititf? B Drizzm‘fmn tiff-:5]??? {‘atz.l§3't>122;tw;f. Fm“ c-ixan'iplt-z would the“ ltmiltlitig ul' 1: mm m‘l'ztml invoke the wmciml {if}; womlct‘l 2mm? firm would tlw local H‘iitilllt’ ' ht“ :tfi‘c‘titttt'l h}; the pntczitifi lost»; (if 1%. habitat? - .8‘fggjé‘t in (gum-3:2} {gf‘wfw‘affm fjmr’érft’ri. What. if ilm mfw st'honl attracts shiilm‘l {withers or gifted \"i'lldfi‘lllfi‘ zzwzajv l’mm other schuuls? let-Tint il‘ tlu‘r t1ch . Si‘lHBOl absorbed at significant amount of the hintis available to scl'umls. depriving" other schemlx of? the same funds? ' [flit-7'1"? fo)‘?'t’)iir”?l:)' values; If the school (1065 hot do well in (‘Oltépflt‘lSOn with national stmttigu‘cls, how will this affect the property Values Of‘tlte houses in thc surmundlng community? ' [trams-w! tax inzm’m‘ Haw t-muitl the new school he: fundede If the new school is a public school, the opening of the niiw school maid i‘csult in an increase in property taxes fer the local com munity to help support the new school. _ _ _ _ 5' 'Pfifiwmflm flj‘Oletett’Ilb'Olfiflnthigh; firlétlfitl Expansion. Is it possihlt? that the land used for the schoel Wtiiuld have better been used for same other new building? For example, what if there were plenty of schools, but not enough jobs in the neighborheod, would the land have been better used to build new businesses? 8 Im‘remm’ tittmaattdfln‘Films-mg: ls that enough housing available in the c0m~ Illilfllly lit) arcomrnodate new teachers and fitmilies that desire access to the new school? Qiifis'iiifjtls Sltt‘l! :15 these can gin: us pause for thought beforejumpéag on the bandwagon of a propnsetl actien. Omitteé Information That Remains Missing just because you are able to request important missing informatien does not guarantee it satisfm‘tor'y response. It i5 quite possible that your probing ques— tions cannot be answered. Do not despair! You did your part. You requested inferination that you nceded to make up your mind; you must now decide 37'6 Ci'taptcr 12. whether it is possible to arrive at a conclusion without the missing infotnta— titm. We warnoti you tutriier that, rtfasm'zing always incomplote. ’l'hercforc, to claim automati 7211]}: that you cannot. make a decision as iong as infornmtion. is missing wouid prevent you from ever forming any opinions. USlNG THlS CRlTlCAL QUESTlON Once you have thought about the‘ existence of missing inft'irmation in an argumcnt, whats-should you do? Tito first logical reaction isto the infor- . mation. But usually you will encounter resistance. Your“ options as a critical. thinker are to voice your disploasurc with the argument in light of the miss- ing inlormation, keep scarcitng for the infijrmation that. you rcquirti. or cautiougéy agroc with the reasoning on the? grounds that. this argumcnt is; bettci‘ than its competitors. Missing information and Your Own Writing and Speaking - When you communicate, you will necessarily omit some information that your audience moods. However, at the same time, your experience using {his critical question as an evaluative tool should forewarn you that some information is especially important for a strong argument. ‘Witen you write or spoak, you Show respect for your audience when you include specific inibrmaiiou that you know in advance will assist their: in deciding the merits ofyour reasoning. For example, whom you propose an action, think about potential, relevant countoi‘argunicuts to what you are. advocating and share thosc couuttarargw EDC‘I‘JL‘Z with your audience. To do othcrm‘st' is to insult them. They imo‘w there are alternative gerspet‘tivos. So, in the intt‘rest oi‘your own integrity, he optrn about their existence“. 7 ( Irifiml Ontariimt: Wm: significant information is omitted ? K o . Practice Exercises in touch of tin": ft'illtm'iw'r CKat'n‘ilc‘S. this]? is im 'tortuut {EtiSSan iz'tiiit‘t't'ttttimi. I a l an Make a lien oi? questions; you would 215i; tin“ fit-"ISO?! who wrotc (.‘iltfii'i pitftfizifit’. Explain in outfit cagv why t‘ltt‘ iniiu'iuutioti you are set-king; is; impotnn'tt to you as You of; to (icritic tin" worth of the z'é-fz-1$<'H'iiii%~§: Whgll fiignélvfl‘zglal lnfhrma-ilrm is {Emlélrdl’ £177 l’aésxg‘i‘ l Rm N's: z'mgim'rh hm; x§;;;2s=§2 iil'mi. liming .mzii xlrrgfing Ems rim haul m a §K"I§'it_§f-r'§” iiib‘. lit Enhmgmrs amp“érmrz‘zza, rrsfnx' ltj‘i‘l g2 lmrc‘ miniamzm :imi aélwmtlfi m» slew} mud: fiij Elms; Elsffi'l'ilil mic“ limnrl m l”)? l‘lé‘i'l,£3i' able in range: {rm}; iglfigil'lc'fg gm! m live _ = ' léws alarm mg}: $33153;ch fcwi g'alrirzi‘y ui' l'nml Lié'ié’l 3kg}! 3 suimgmriai ammunii. {he {muggxgigcw {'(fiie‘liéi’lt‘d lira: przargzlrx ma. rumifl lyrrma‘fi: {mm lrif‘é‘; Mimi: .mrl alvcgulng am; mom..- phssirni Milt-i132 I’;:2sa;3grf (ilmaing ltrlar‘u::rlngy (7m Emu! [a man}; pmitive breuiluhruzIghs in ihv rm'diml l'irlxl. If‘ we \n‘u- m :u‘iequmt‘l}? (lewiup darling {CCIHH‘rlug}; tlztrc would my luslgc'T be 3 Head [hr people In (iic became of a lack 0f a-rgan (101mm. erh (rimming. I‘i’S{f}1§'(‘ht‘!"€ (“Hill-(l :‘1r1‘iliri;-llly (ivvrlog arw organs fer pruple in Urged nF ll'ar'lsplzinns. Plrm. became? that? organs would he (‘lmzvd from the purscm's awn tissues. {here wmllcl be 1m rlmm'e of zi'urér lmriy‘ Rjéffifl'illg the tramplmmrrl organ. Tllt‘ (rlomd organs can. be marie in §>0dies that lack :1 brad, and thus. wuultl not involve a “death” in order- m 33% a life. .-=’ulsi)thr:1' advantage of Cloning is [lull it Gm liclp fight disease, Certain profelzlfi prmhlcszd by flours can he usrd to fight diseases such as (liabetm, Parkinson’s dleZlSt’, and ('iysrjr Fibrosis. America is [he pralict‘lnnn of the world. .EE is ourjob [0 go into countries then need our help and [0 watch over them. 0116: effective way to limit the inten artirn'is we need to have with other countries; is 10 encourage the dcveiopment of democracy and free markets in {hesc rvumries. After all, the modern Western] democrmics have not: hmgi’zt wars agains; (me .1_:1mh_er, and they .121: all (Iamoamir with :1 free. m;u-§<.cf structure. Furthermore, look at the easy transitirm Germany liar} when it was rmmiwcl. Darnerracy was; installed and the f'ljrmerly split West and first German}; came. alrmgjus: firm. In flirt, the German camel-13y did really well with {he transition also. (Em-many mrremly has {he third largest GB? of any century in film world. all became of ("it'mom‘acy and {:apitalisz'n. Sample Respenses ~ mm W m Passage 1 (TOV'JIHL‘SION: Paglia mmid bram‘rfiifinm wring mu? sakvglrirzg lam. REASt’W: .S'fétrféc'c ml rm‘s fim'ir' 372mm? {fin-l! win??? mix mi and Siz’f‘fl {#35, if“? wmvm“ from mjurzxes‘ imiter and live to" *r than. nflzm- mtg. 3-758 Charlie-r 12 Before We aii start to cut back on our food intake and amount of sleep, we sl1011]d_reevaluate the information provided leading to this conclusion. What are the counterarguments, for example? Is it possible that humans and rats ciiffer too much to generalize from one to other about the effects oi sleep? Also, how much longer did the rats that ate and slept less live, and how much faster did these same rats recover from injuries? ls if possible that the variance is small or insignificant? Did the rats suffer any negative-aficcts from eating anti sleeping iess? Would the rats have lived longer and recov ered faster if instead of sleeping and eating less they ate and slept far more - than the other rats-E: - Furthermore, just what do we know about the testing procedures? Noth- ing at aili These are just a few of the questions we would want to as}; before we relied on the information in this passage. Passage 2 CONCLUSION: Cloning can provide positive medical benefits. 1. Clones can be ass;de human transplants. 2. 6101285 can be used to facile comm: certain diseases. Reasons: First, we should note that this reasoning advocates pursuing a new technology—human cloning—and cites only its advantages. The writer omits possihie disadvantages. We need to consider both advantages and dis- advantages. What serious side effects might result from using cloned organs? Are cloned organs as stable as regular organs? What positive and negative effbcts might cloning technology have on human decision—making? Would people be less likely to take care of their bodies and their organs if they knew that new organs could be grown to replace their current ones? Woniti the availability of the technoiogy lead people to misuse cloning to produce com- piete human clones for an insidious purpose? Would people clone them— selves, heiping add to the burden already placed on the Earth E33: the current population? The advantages of the procedure may weii outweigh the disacivanzages, but we need to be aware of both inhjudging the merits of the conciusion. Furthermore, let‘s look at the missing information regarding the research. Did you notice that no research has been. cited? In fact, the argumeai fails to tell us that no tests or: human cloning have occurred in the ifaéteti States. Therefore, at} of the discussion on the benefits oi‘cloning is hypothctin cali Weight actuai research prove the hypothetical benefits to be possihie? We (it: not tam. mm ‘v'v'va V ww'v .4. . u n . . . ‘« “hdwéeré- What figuif’ec:~m£ Infumzaéhm is {imés'ts-cd? E? CRmCfixL QU‘EsmN SUMMARY: 1 wwms QUESTIG‘N is mmxmm' , ) kg . W “a mat aignsfieam- infermstéeisn Is Qméfiefi? Whea an 3mm}: £3 m3“:ng m gaérswdé 359%.: sf mmetfia‘hg, she; after) féavégém ‘: impartg-at Enforzzéatéca. Tais ififmma'fiim £3 afier: usefzfi 5:? assessing-iii?" 'érf' cf {he canduséfin. 53f emiiaifly éQekmg f9; amitteafi iafermafiefi} s; Saier‘méne whether {fie antiwar has mma’ded yau ’ 59995:? the raasanérzg. if she has iefi cat :90 much i-nfsrmafiam wt; 63" attept the ré‘asofis “as gupgm for {his coridugiah, Commutean yazi éfidfi, Cfiofise to @661“ her coaclusmn. ...
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Asking the right questions ch 12 - WHAT SIGNIFICANT...

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