pid booklet - Basic Experiments in PID Control for...

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B B a a s s i i c c E E x x p p e e r r i i m m e e n n t t s s i i n n P P I I D D C C o o n n t t r r o o l l f f o o r r N N o o n n - - e e l l e e c c t t r r i i c c a a l l E E n n g g i i n n e e e e r r s s Buffer 100 k 100 k 100 k 100 k Process Variable Voltage Error Set Point Voltage 4.7 k 100 k Pot Proportional 1 M Pot 1 μ F Integral 220 1 M Pot Differential 10 μ F 100 k Pot 100 k 100 k Inverter 100 k Summer 100 k 100 k 100 k Output Voltage +15 v Buffer 100 k Pot +15 v J.P. Thrower, S. Kiefer, K. Kelmer, and L. Silverberg May 1998
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Process Variable 100 k Pot Set Point 100 k Pot -15v 100 k 100 k Proportional 100 k Pot Integral 1 M Pot 220 10 μ F Derivative 1 M Pot 100 k 100 k 10 k Power 100 k Pot 4.7 k +15v Proportional 1 μ F Integral 100 k 100 k Process Variable Set Point Error Derivative Summer Inverter Power Op Amp 100 k 100 k 100 k 100 k
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1 Contents Contents. .............................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction . ........................................................................................................................ 2 1. Analog Components. ....................................................................................................... 5 The Resistor. .............................................................................................................. 5 The Capacitor . ........................................................................................................... 8 The Operational AmplifierIntroduction . ................................................................... 9 Powering the Breadboard. ....................................................................................... 10 2. The Analysis of Simple Circuits . .................................................................................. 12 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law & Current Law. ............................................................... 12 Series and Equivalent Resistance and Voltage Division. ........................................ 13 Experiment 1: Measuring Currents and Voltages . ....................................... 15 Experiment 2: Using a Potentiometer . ......................................................... 16 The RC Circuit . ....................................................................................................... 17 Experiment 3: Measuring the Accumulation of Voltage. ............................. 18 Operational Amplifiers. ........................................................................................... 19 Derivation of Op Amp Assumptions. ............................................................ 19 Saturation of Op Amps. ................................................................................. 20 Signal Gain and Signal Inverting . ................................................................. 21 Signal Buffering . ........................................................................................... 22 Signal Addition . ............................................................................................ Signal Subtraction . ........................................................................................ 23 Signal Cascading. .......................................................................................... 23 Experiment 4: Measuring Op Amp Gain . .................................................... 24 The Derivative Operation. ............................................................................. 25 The Integral Operation . ................................................................................. 25 Experiment 5: Measuring Derivatives and Integrals. ................................... 26 3. Propertional, Integral, Derivative (PID) Control Theory. ............................................. 29 Terminology. ........................................................................................................... 29 Control Theory . ....................................................................................................... 30 4. Building the Complete PID Controller. ......................................................................... 32 Introduction . ............................................................................................................ 32 Setting Up the Breadboard . ..................................................................................... 32 Set Point and Process Variable. ............................................................................... 34 Error Comparison. ................................................................................................... 36 Proportional Controller . .......................................................................................... 37 Integral Controller. .................................................................................................. 38 Derivative Controller. .............................................................................................. 40 Adding the Control Efforts. ..................................................................................... 42 Connecting to a Physical System . ........................................................................... 43 The Complete Controller. ........................................................................................ 47 PID Parts List . ......................................................................................................... 48
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2 Introduction As you read this little book and follow its directions you will be guided to an understanding of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. However, the purpose of this manual, and the value of learning PID control goes beyond PID control itself. Assuming that you are not an electrical engineering student, it is possible that you lack a basic understanding of electrical engineering. You may ask yourself, what is it that electrical engineers do? Of course, a lack of understanding of basic principles in electrical engineering limits your ability to understand most mechanical devices--since most are really "electromechanical." This lack of understanding limits your imagination and prevents you from dreaming up and designing new electromechanical devices to solve whatever problem you face-- whether the device is to be sold on the open market, integrated into a manufacturing process, or simply used in a laboratory.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course MAE 3113 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Oklahoma State.

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pid booklet - Basic Experiments in PID Control for...

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