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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE en-export SYSTEM "http://xml.evernote.com/pub/evernote-export.dtd"> <en-export export-date="20110909T153749Z" application="Evernote" version="Evernote Mac 3.0.0 (169177)"> <note><title>September 1</title><content><![CDATA[<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <!DOCTYPE en-note SYSTEM "http://xml.evernote.com/pub/enml2.dtd"> <en-note style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: space; -webkit-line- break: after-white-space;"> <span style="font-size: 18px;">Formal and Informal Controls on Media Content</span> <div><span style="font-size: 18px;"><br/></span></div> <div><span style="font-size: 14px;">Government Regulation</span><br/> <ul> <li>Authoritarian <ul> <li>owners of mass media are supporters of the regime</li> <li>mass-media content strictly adheres to party line, e.g. Nazis in the Second World War</li> </ul> </li> <li>Communist <ul> <li>government determines what the population experiences through media outlets, so as to convey communist beliefs, e.g. North Korea, China</li> </ul> </li> <li>Libertarian <ul> <li>assumes individuals capable of making sound decision for themselves</li> <li>government intervenes rarely, and not in mass media</li> </ul> </li> <li>Social Responsibility <ul> <li>importance of the individual and the marketplace of ideas</li> <li>Real competition happens only with government action</li> <li>Certain Content is harmful</li> <li>e.g. public television</li> </ul> </li> </ul> U.S. is more of a Social Responsibility regime</div> <div><br/></div> <div>Three types of Government Control</div> <ol> <li>Regulation before distribution<br/> <ul> <li>Copyright- The legal protection of an author's right to a work</li> <li>Copyright act of 1976- works created for creators lifetime + 70 years</li> <li>Exceptions to Copy Rights- Fair Use: <ul> <li>excerpts used in critical analysis</li> <li>non-profit, educational use</li> <li>transformative interpretations</li> <li>parodies</li> </ul> </li> <li>Exception 2: Copyright infringement does not apply </li> <li>not always clear when fair use applies</li>
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<li>Commercial Speech <ul> <li>Regulated by the Federal Trade Commission- Oversees most commercial speech and it may censor false/ deceptive ads</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li>Regulation after distribution <ul> <li>Defamation <ul> <li>Highly disreputable/ fase statement about person/ organization that injure reputation</li> <li>Libel- <b>written</b> communication that is considered harmful to a person's reputation <ul> <li>Depends on whether libel in itself or implied, private/ public person, simple/ actual malice, negligence</li> <li>Evidentiary Requirements: published defamation, identified plaintiff, harmed plaintiff, defendant at fault, defamation was false</li> </ul> </li> <li>Slander- <b>spoken</b> communication that is considered harmful to a person's reputation</li> </ul> </li> <li>FCC (Federal Communication Commission) Defamation <ul> <li>Fairness Doctrine- requires broadcasters to provide some degree of balance in
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