History_of_turbines_2 - 1'0 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE The...

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Unformatted text preview: 1'0 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE The other General Electric engine was started before the end of 1945. This was the TG—180 (later known as the J35), and was an axial-flow turbojet engine. Because of the deep involvement in the production of air—cooled reciprocating engines and because it was a private venture on their part, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft was not deeply involved in gas turbine work. As partial payment for Lend—Lease during World War 11, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft was given the plans and details for the Rolls-Royce Nene engine (which, when produced by Pratt & Whitney became the 142) and a layout of the Rolls—Royce TAY engine. This later engine was essentially developed by Pratt 82; Whitney and became known as the J48. Other Efforts Although the main emphasis during this period was on the application of the gas turbine to airplane propulsion, one historic nonaircraft installation occurred. This was the installation of a 2200—hp gas turbine in a locomotive ordered by the Swiss Federal Railways. This locomotive was first run in January 1941 and, at its most economical output of 1700 hp, had an efficiency of 18.4%. It should be noted that this was a gas turbine with a regenerator (13). Table 1.5 lists some of the operating parameters of gas turbine engines that existed in 1946. E 1945 TO 1950 From 1945 to 1950, numerous companies that had been interested in the applications of the gas turbine and had been performing studies before or during World War II or that had been investigating components for use in a gas turbine reentered the field. A new type of power plant was ready for development. Government financial support was plentiful and could be readily obtained. Many companies, with visions on the profits that could be reaped from a successful venture into this field, started or continued research and development of the gas turbine for many applications. As with any new field, only a few survived the test, as can be seen by a comparison of a list of companies that were working on it in 1945 and that are now active in the field. At this point it becomes impossible to discuss all the companies involved and the many applications for gas turbines. In this and successive periods, the major accomplishments for the various areas are discussed. Each application is discussed separately. Some of the applications overlap two areas, and, in the case of government work, it is hard to pin down when they occurred: that is, the first running of an engine, the first flight of an engine, and so 011. Automotive The first public demonstration of a gas turbine-powered automobile took place during this period at Silverstone, Northamptonshire, on 'March 9, 1950 (15). The gas turbine was installed in a Rover company car and consisted of a centrifugal compressor, single-stage turbine driving the compressor, and a separate power turbine. Although this engine had been arranged to include a heat exchanger, the first test of the engine owe 8% 80m 82 83 SE a a: 33:2 80H so? ommH on: comm mme e a: HwEHoZ HmEHHH toégfi .mEHmM Eb £3: HMH co; ...lH.H mHH w: owH :oamfinmcs Huan 0+ w.mH HdH HdH 5.3 mmd Eb «Em 5:on 9 £3: Nwd H .m .0 $6 mmd 3.0 mmd HmEEbHHwHo? an I \ | 9. mm 33: 25a 3. ”row: ”HqumH "HoommH nHomomH "H09”: "HoommH .mEE «Ham $373 I l | l $8 3:235 mom? H I nHoow m H I “Heat“ H ”H093 dam: t3 H H H H H H . mumfiw 35% 3x4 HangN Hana Hme< 3E4 can. qufiPHL Boa Ear. ion 26: :wsefi‘EmHabm :w:Efi.EwEbm zmzaHfiHRwfihm Boa qu>E nm=o§-EmHEHm Boa BEE £3.55 a £3.55 a .EBEEU H: .EBEEU 2 535%? E .2382”. 9 09¢. "H382“. nonmSEoU Qm ‘ Qm ‘ H4“ w.m 0an Esmfizm w H H H H H mum—3m gum. 032% E5 032% has» @358 @ch 2338 FEB 228m. 25c RUE “Hamshbcuo ”Hamzhbuuu .HdeHEHHoU ,HamEEEuU mHmeHEcmO 09¢. “8305500 5.85.59 635th Huncahsrr Human—EH SWEEP BEBE. 2H»... ESHHHE. 83m 23% "buxom mHchH uuzom mHHowH oEouHmH H5550 oEuonH H9650 BEHuflacmSH Hum—-30 95; 252 H E0350 H 3363 21 SH 632 |l|||||||l He: 33 E unanim— uufi nufimcm auqonih a... an .226“ .3 5.3 .m._ 39¢ 11 12 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE did not include one because the heat exchanger was difficult to develop and was not ready in time for the first test. Aviation The gas turbine in the form of a turbojet engine was shown to be successful for propulsion of airplanes during World War II. The W1 units built by the British and the German engines that were built and used during World War II were now ready for extensive retesting, redesign, and improvement. General Electric engineers began to make design improvements and to increase the size of the LA engine they had been building. They built in sequence a few 1-143, many [-16s, some 1-205, and a large number of I-40s. These units were designed to develop i400, 1600, 2000, and 4000 lb of static thrust, respectively. Engines of the first two of this series were employed to propel the twin-engine Bell P—S9A aircraft, the first American jet plane. The 1-20 had the best specific fuel consumption of any of these early designs, but because of the need for larger units, only a few were built. The I-40, on the other hand, was the initial design of the turbojet that has been built in larger quantities than any other unit. It was conceived early in 1943 and was run initially in December of the following year. It was first used in the Lockheed XF-SO, the Shooting Star, in June 1944. In order to secure expanding facilities, the blueprints of the engine were given to the Allison Division of General Motors for mass production. The initial production model, which was designated the J33-A-21, delivered 3825 lb of static thrust with a specific fuel consumption of 1.22 lb of fuel per hour per pound of thrust. It weighed 1850 lb. Through a continual development program by Allison the engine was improved in two successive major steps. The first increased the static thrust to 4600 lb, and the second provided an even greater increase. These increases, unlike the ones in the I series, were made without increasing the diameter of the engine. Increases in thrust were obtained by increasing the air flow and the pressure ratio. Simultaneously with the thrust increase, the specific fuel consumption was reduced. At the same time as General Electric and Allison were developing and making im— provements, British engineers were also making great strides along the same lines. The DeHavilland Company produced a Goblin and the Ghost. The Rolls-Royce Company designed in order the Welland, the Derwent, and the Nene. The essential difference between the developments of the two companies was that the DeHavilland engines em— ployed single—entry compressors, whereas Rolls-Royce concentrated on the double- entry type. The latter type of compressor has vanes on both sides of the impeller and has the advantage of increased air flow with only a small increase in weight. Americanized versions of both the Nene I and the Nene Tay were produced by Pratt & Whitney. Other versions of the same engines were also in production in France, the Soviet Union, and Australia. Versions of the Goblin and the Ghost were produced in Sweden and Italy, and of the Derwent in Belgium and Argentina. Although the development of turial~flow turbojet units began almost as early as the work on centrifugal type and many more axial designs have been made, production in America and England lagged behind that of the centrifugal type. The reverse was true in Germany. In spite of the fact that the first German flight was with a centrifugal- type jet and the Germans continued to make other designs, the axial-flow engines emerged the favorites and Were the first to be put into production. The Jumo 004 1.51945T01950 13 was the only operational German turbojet. It had an eight-stage axial compressor, six combustion chambers, and a one—stage impulse turbine. It delivered a static thrust from 2200 to 2500 1b with a specific fuel consumption of about 1.36 to 1.4 113. It was the power plant used in the ME 262, the first operational jet bomber. The construction of the Jumo 004A was begun in early 1940, and the first unit ran in December of that year. It required a period of about 6 months to eliminate the vibration troubles. Consequently the unit was not flight-tested until late in 1941. In this country, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the General Electric Company pioneered in the field of axial—flow turbojets. Although some thought was given to the possibility of such engines in 1941, the fabrication of units did not begin until 1942 and the first units were tested in 1943. Westinghouse built the 19A, 19B, 9 1/2A, 9 1/2B, 19XB, 24C, and J40 in sequence. The designations of the first six of these units were based on the diameter in inches of the units, and their static thrusts delivered 1100, 1365, 270, 275, 1600, and 8000 lb of thrust, respectively. The General Electric Company designed and built the TG180, TG190, and other new engines. The T0180, known as the 135, was placed in quantity production by Allison in 1947. The TG190, or J47, was produced by General Electric. These two engines are similar. The latter has one more compressor stage and increased air flow and thrust. Except for the production of the British Nene, the design, development, and produc— tion of jet engines in France has concentrated on the axial-flow type. Rateau designed units with high compression ratios and large thrust values. The Russians produced several axial-flow turbojets, which were developed from the German engines. They have improved versions of the BMW003, the Jumo 004, the Jumo 012, and the BMW018. These engines deliver thrusts of about 3750, 4000, 6600, and 700 1b, respectively. The pressure ratios vary in the range from 3.4 to 7.0, and the specific fuel consumption from 1.2 to 1.08 lb/lb—h. One possible method of improving the static thrust and thrust at low speed is to accelerate a large mass of air. This can be done by an engine in the form of a turboprop engine. _ The Armstrong—Siddeley Company used the ASX axial—flow turbojet as a basis for the development of the Python turboprop. This engine first ran in March 1945. Rolls—Royce adapted the Derwent turbojet to form an experimental turboprop, the Trent. In September 1945 it became the first turboprop to propel an aircraft. The Bristol Company was the first to concentrate on the development of a turboprop per se. Their first unit was the Theseus I. It had a combined compressor consisting of eight axial stages followed by one centrifugal stage. The compressor was run by the first two stages of the turbine, and the third turbine stage drove a propeller by means of an independent shaft that extended forward through the hollow compressor rotor shaft. The first turboprop designed in the United States was the Turbodyne of the Northrup Aircraft Company. The commitment for the production of this engine began in 1941 and the engine was wrecked in the test bed some 4 years later. Chrysler Corporation was awarded, in the fall of 1945, a research and development contract by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the US. Navy to create a turboprop engine for aircraft. This program resulted in the development of a turboprop engine that achieved fuel economy approaching that of aircraft piston engines prior to being terminated in 1949. 14 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE The time between overhaul on jet engines in early 1946 was set at 50 h. In May 1947, the J33 was the first gas turbine engine to complete the ISO-hour qualification (16). A milestone was reached when a Vickers Viscount was first flown on July 16, 1948, as the world’s first turboprop—driven transport. The engines were Dart R. Da. 1 turboprop engines, which developed 1380 ehp. Other achievements were occurring in many other areas. A milestone was reached on July 14, 1947, when the British Navy‘s MGB 2009 put to sea with a gas turbine engine providing part of the propulsive power. The first vessel to be propelled solely by a gas turbine was a 24—ft plane—personnel boat powered by a Boeing engine. Trials started on May 30, 1950 (17). The second gas turbine locomotive was built by General Electric Company and first operated on November 14, 1948. Although this was an experimental unit, it was so successful that an order was placed in December 1950, with the first units delivered in January 1952. The first gas turbine locomotive that could be called a commercial product was delivered by Brown Boveri to the Great Western Railway in England on March 10, 1950 (18). The first gas-line unit, in the form of a gas turbine driving a centrifugal compressor, was an 1800-hp single-shaft unit built by Westinghouse. It was placed in service in May 1949 on the 22-in.-diameter line of the Mississippi Fuel Corp. at Wilman, Arkansas (19). The first stationary gas turbine built in the United States for the purpose of generating electric power went into service on July 29, 1949 (20). It was a 3500—kW unit installed at the Belle Isle Station of the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company in Oklahoma City. It had a pressure ratio of 6 and a turbine inlet temperature of 760°C (1400°F). The unit was retired in September 1980, moved to Schenectady, New York and dedicated as the 73rd National Historic Mechanical Engineering Land- mark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers on November 8, 1984 (21). Brown Boveri placed a 10,000—kW, double—shaft unit with intercooling, regenera— tion, and reheat in operation at the Santa Rosa plant in Lima, Peru in the same year (20). E 1950 TO 1960 The 1950s saw the gas turbine engine being used in practically every type of application suitable to prime movers. In several cases, it was still being used in an introductory manner; in other areas it was well entrenched. This decade saw extensive efforts being made in materials, turbine cooling, fuels, and cycle components. It also was a time period in which some of the weak companies were forced out of the business. The General Electric Co. was awarded a joint contract in 1951 by the Atomic Energy Commission and the U.S. Air Force to determine if an atomic-powered aircraft was feasible (5). Their responsibility was to develop sufficient data on nuclear materials and the shielding required for an atomic-powered gas turbine. Pratt & Whitney was pursuing a similar course. In 1954, both GE and Pratt & Whitney were teamed with an airframe company for further development. All work was terminated by 1961 (5). 1.71960TOI970 15 In 1953, GE started work on the GOL—1590, a predecessor to the J79. The GOL— 1590 was a single rotor turbojet engine that used a variable stator compressor (5). In 1953, the Vickers Viscount, powered by a Rolls Royce Dart turboprop engine, entered commercial service. Boeing’s 707' made its maiden flight on July 15, 1954. It was powered by four Pratt & Whitney JT—3 turbojet engines. In March 1956, a standard production model of a 1956 Plymouth powered by a gas turbine engine made the first transcontinental journey. It averaged, over the 3020- mi trip, approximately 13 mpg (22). A modified Sikorsky 8—58 powered by two General Electric T585 made the first US. turbine—powered helicopter flight. In 1956, GE started development of an aft fan turbofan engine, the C1805—23. The full engine was tested December 27, 1957. It was the first U. S. turbofan engine. It entered airline service in the 19605, the first in the world to enter service (5). Pratt & Whitney started development of its first turbofan engine in the late 19505. It modified a 1T3 (.157) gas generator into the JT3D. The late 19505 saw the introduction of light—weight, simple-cycle gas generators and gas turbines into the marketplaces. These simple—cycle gas turbines had pressure ratios around 12 and cycle thermal efficiencies of approximately 25%. E 1950 TO 1910 The 1960s saw the gas turbine being developed into an increasingly efficient and cost—effective engine for many applications. Higher overall pressure ratios and higher turbine inlet temperatures were achieved. Improvements in materials, turbine cooling techniques, and components were achieved. The fuel consumption per pound of thrust for US. commercial applications im— proved about 15% with the introduction of the low-bypass—ratio turbofan engines. The General Electric Company initiated development work on a water—cooled gas turbine in the early 19605, although the first laboratory model was not tested success- fully until 1973. Pratt & Whitney continued development of the JT3D turbofan engine. The JT3D, which made its first flight on a Boeing 707-l20 on June 22, 1960, soon was selected to power some DC-S aircraft. The Allison Division of General Motors initiated, in September 1962, a program to assemble and test a regenerative turboprop engine (23). The regenerator was a stationary tubular-type regenerator to be built by AiResearch Manufacturing Division. The test results showed that specific fuel consumption was reduced 36% when com— pared with their T56 turboprop engine. Gas turbine—powered vehicles had captured the technical community in the 19505. Development of a gas turbine for passenger cars and trucks continued until the early 1970s. Extensive effort was devoted toward materials that would allow a gas turbine for an automobile to operate at higher turbine inlet temperatures, toward methods of reducing the production cost of an engine, and ways to improve its efficiency. Chrysler Corporation unveiled to reporters on 'May 14, 1963, their plans to build 50 turbine—powered test cars to be placed in the hands of typical drivers for evaluation in everyday use. The first of these cars was delivered on October 27, 1963, the last on October 28, 1965 (22). 'l 6 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE The world’s first three-shaft turbofan engine, the RollsARoyce Trent, was run in December I967. Experience from this engine was used in the development of the RB.211 engine. During the 1960s, many simple-cycle gas turbine engines were installed by utilities as peaking units. They were selected because of their short lead time and low capi- tal costs. E 1910 TO 1980 The 1970s introduced many new factors soon to influence the direction taken on gas turbine engine development. These included greater competition among the major engine manufacturers, the prospect and uncertainty of new government regulations on emissions and noise, and dramatic changes in fuel prices and availability. Attention focused on design trade—offs among performance, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and manufacturability. Research was being conducted on ways to reduce noise and emissions from aircraft engines and to increase the performance of the engines. The fuel consumption per pound of tluust for commercial jet engines received a second major improvement when the high—bypass-ratio turbofan engines were intro- duced in the early 1970s. These lowered fuel consumption approximately 20% when compared to the low—bypass-ratio turbofan engines introduced in the early 1960s. The US. Clean Air Act of 1970 charged the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the responsibility for establishing acceptable exhaust emission levels for CO, THC, NO,, and smoke for all types of aircraft engines. These were published on July 17, 1973 (24). The levels established in the standards and the first compliance date of January 1, 1979, have acted as a catalyst for the development of advanced technology combustors. Two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (N ASA)—sponsored low-emis- sion—technology programs were initiated. These were the Experimental Clean Combus- tor Program and the Pollution Reduction Technology Program. The 1970s saw the continued installation of combined—cycle power generating systems. The late 1960s saw the introduction of GE pre—engineered heat recovery combined-cycles for power generation. The early units were from 11 MW to 21 MW (25). Large GE power generation combined-cycles were introduced in 1971. The first GE unit, a 340 MW unit, was purchased by Jersey Central Power & Light in 1971. GE installed a total of 15...
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