Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis

Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis - Freud...

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Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis                          Page  1  of  7 Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Austrian physician, neurologist, and founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of human personality. Through his skill as a scientist and physician, Freud combined ideas emerging at the time with his own observation and study to produce a major new theory of psychology. Most important, he applied these ideas to medical practice in the treatment of mental illness. His newly created psychotherapy treatments and procedures, many of which in modified form are applied today, were based on his discovery of the unconscious and infantile sexuality , especially with respect to the explanation of neurotic symptoms. Regarded with skepticism at the time, Freud’s ideas have waxed and waned in acceptance ever since. Nevertheless, he is generally acknowledged as one of the greatest creative minds of the 20th century.   Freud was born in Moravia, a region in the East Czech Republic, and lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881. His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885-86) under J. M. Charcot in Paris, and soon after his return to Vienna he began his famous collaboration with Josef Breuer on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria. Their paper, On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena (1893), more fully developed in Studies on Hysteria (1895), marked the beginnings of psychoanalysis in the discovery that the symptoms of hysterical patients— directly traceable to psychic trauma in earlier life—represent undischarged emotional energy (conversion; see hysteria ). The therapy, called the cathartic method, consisted of having the patient recall and reproduce the forgotten scenes while under hypnosis. The work was poorly received by the medical profession, and the two men soon separated over Freud's growing conviction that the undefined energy causing conversion was sexual in nature . Freud then rejected hypnosis and devised a technique called free association, which would allow emotionally charged material that the individual had repressed in the unconscious to emerge to conscious recognition. Further works, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913),
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Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis                          Page  2  of  7 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904, tr. 1914), and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905, tr. 1910), increased the bitter antagonism toward Freud, and he worked alone until 1906, when he was joined by the Swiss psychiatrists Eugen Bleuler and C. G. Jung , the Austrian Alfred Adler , and others. In 1908, Bleuler, Freud, and Jung founded a journal, and in 1909 the movement first received
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Freud and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis - Freud...

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