tutorial 3 - 1 Philosophy 105-04: Tutorial 3 2 May 2011 Q1....

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1 Philosophy 105-04: Tutorial 3 2 May 2011 Q1. According to Aristotle, there are two types of action: voluntary and involuntary. In order to declare an action voluntary, certain qualifications must be met. When a person willingly performs a certain action, that action must be voluntary whether or not the action appears welcome. Aristotle gives the example of throwing cargo overboard in storms; no one would willingly throw away cargo, but if this action could save lives, any sane person would choose losing the cargo over losing a life. Any action is voluntary if the agent intends the means, the result or both the means and the result. On the other hand, when the cause of an action is external, or the agent contributes nothing, that action can be declared involuntary. In this case, the agent may have been forced to perform the action either by a secondary source or ignorance. The result may be either positive or negative, but either way, the agent had no intention of performing said action. Overall, no action is general; every action has certain options whether the action itself happens to be voluntary or involuntary. For example, no one can ever be talking in general; they must be speaking of a specific thing. Likewise, no one can be eating in general; when eating, one is eating something specifically. In order to determine the best option of an action, reason must be incorporated. Q2. Aristotle creates a distinction between the voluntary and decision in Book III of Nicomachean Ethics . According to Aristotle, the voluntary extends widely. Adults, as well as children and animals, are capable of voluntary action. Unlike involuntary action, voluntary is neither forced nor caused by ignorance. It is, however, often caused by spirit
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2 or appetite. Both humans and animals are genetically inclined to desire or avoid various things. Acting on these inclinations must be viewed as voluntary because they are natural to humans and animals. As long as an action includes some sort of calculation or feeling, it is said to be voluntary. In this case, acting on the spur of the moment is always voluntary. By nature, animals, both human and non-human, tend to avoid certain things that could potentially harm them. For example, while driving down the street, a man suddenly notices a dog in the road. In an attempt to avoid the dog, the man swerves to his right, consequently getting his car stuck in a ditch. The man voluntarily chose not to hit the dog out of instinct. Upon seeing a roadblock, he automatically did everything in his power to avoid
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHIL 105 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '10 term at Saint Louis.

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tutorial 3 - 1 Philosophy 105-04: Tutorial 3 2 May 2011 Q1....

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