Amer. His. Essays Study Guide

Amer. His. Essays Study Guide - ESSAYS 1 Discuss the role...

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ESSAYS 1. Discuss the role of containment in American foreign policy during the period 1950- 1965. How did it shape American involvement in Korea and Vietnam? Was the overall effect of containment beneficial or harmful to the goals and ideals of the United States? Period of 1950-1965 A. Containment in American foreign policy was the containment of the spread of Communism in this period. i. Soviet Union-Arms Race and building tensions between two superpowers. At the end of WWII, the issues between the two countries escalated into a Cold War. The Cold war was when the United States and Soviet Union stood back and threatened each other with nuclear warfare. ii. China-as the Chinese government fell to Mao Zedong, it became communist. Now that two large countries were communist, the United States began to interfere in Asian affairs, hoping to detain further spreading of the Communist government and ideals. iii. Korea-War in Korea-The United States and Soviet Union both had troops in the country, so they divided it north and south. A surprise attack in 1950 lead to a civil war, in which the US and SU became entangled in. After the war drags on for 3 years, the countries sign an Armistice and Korean casualties were over 1 million. iv. First part of Vietnam War-shattered the liberal consensus. The war was so hotly debated among Americans that it changed the perception of a generation. v. President D. Eisenhower’s “New Look”-the containment of communism. 1. if communism was not controlled, it would spread throughout the world. B. Shaping involvement in Korea and Vietnam i. Korea: Since there was SU occupation in Korea, the United States (President Truman) went to the Security Council instead of Congress to get permission into Korea. 1. Occupies Korea, and after fighting for 3 years they only settled on an Armistice. 2. This shows as Communism was reaching out, the United States would immediately come to the aide of the country in which it was spreading. ii. Vietnam: failure of American policy makers in detaining communism. The United States feared that if Vietnam fell to Communism, then all of Southeast asia would (located next to Cambodia and Laos). 1. This fear drove the United States into Vietnam, North and South Vietnam (17 th parallel, Geneva Accords). US sending “military advisors” and new government would be elected in 2 years.
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2. United states feared that the government would be Communism, and they made sure that this wouldn’t happen with the influence of the CIA and a puppet government. iii. Containment beneficial or harmful 1. Controversial 2. US failed in North Korea and in Vietnam, billions of dollars lost in both countries, thousands of tons of ammunition ineffective towards Vietnam, Post-traumatic stress disorder for veterans.
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